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{{Topp}}alié[[nation]]]]'', [[German]]: ''[[Entfremdung{{Bottom}}
==Sigmund Freud==
The term "[[alienation]]" does not constitute part of [[Freud]]'s [[theory|theoretical]] [[:category:concepts|vocabulary]].
alienation (aliÈnation) The ==Jacques Lacan=====References===In [[Lacan]]'s [[Jacques Lacan:Bibliography|work]] the term 'alienation' does not constitute partimplies both [[psychiatric]] and [[philosophical]] references:
;Psychiatry[[French]] [[psychiatry]] in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of Freud[[mental]] [[illness]] as 's theoretical vocabulary'[[alienation|aliénation mentale]]'', and a common term in [[French]] for "[[madness|madman]]" is ''[[alienation|aliéné]]. In Lacan's work the term implies both'<ref>{{Ec}} p. 154</ref>
psychiatric ;PhilosophyThe term "[[alienation]]" is the usual [[translation]] for the [[German]] term ''[[alienation|Entfremdung]]'' which features in the '''[[philosophy]]''' of [[Hegel]] and philosophical references:[[Marx]].
. Psychiatry French psychiatry However, the [[Lacan]]ian [[concept]] of [[alienation]] differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the nineteenth century (e[[Hegel]]ian and [[Marx]]ist [[tradition]].g<ref>{{S11}} p. Pinel)215</ref>
conceived of mental illness as aliÈnation mentale===Subject===For [[Lacan]], [[alienation]] is not an accident that befalls the '''[[subject]]''' and a common term inwhich can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the '''[[subject]]'''.
French for The [[subject]] is fundamentally 'madman' '[[split]]''', [[alienation|alienated]] from himself, and there is aliÈnÈ (a term which Lacan himself uses; Ecno escape from this [[division]], 154)no possibility of "[[wholeness]]" or [[synthesis]].
[[Alienation]] is an inevitable consequence of the [[process]] by which the '''[[ego]]''' is constituted by '''[[identification]]''' with the [[counterpart]]:
<blockquote>"The initial synthesis of the ''ego'' is essentially an ''alter ego'', it is alienated."<ref>{{S3}} p. 39</ref></blockquote>
. Philosophy The term 'alienationIn Rimbaud' s [[words]], "I is the usual translation for the Germanan [[other]]."<ref>{{E}} p. 23</ref>
term Entfremdung which features in ===Imaginary===Thus [[alienation]] belongs to the philosophy of Hegel and Marx.'''[[imaginary]] [[order]]''':
However, <blockquote>"Alienation is constitutive of [[the Lacanian concept of alienation differs greatly from imaginary]] order. Alienation is [[The Imaginary|the waysimaginary]] as such."<ref>{{S3}} p. 146</ref></blockquote>
that the term ===Psychosis===Although [[alienation]] is employed in the Hegelian and Marxist tradition (as Jacques-an essential characteristic of all [[subjectivity]], '''[[psychosis]]''' represents a more extreme [[form]] of [[alienation]].
Alain Miller points out; Sll==="Extimacy"===[[Lacan]] coined the term "'''[[extimacy]]'''" to designate the [[nature]] of this [[alienation]], 215)in which [[alterity]] inhabits the innermost core of the [[subject]]. For Lacan, alienation is not an accident that
befalls ===Separation===[[Lacan]] devotes the subject [[whole]] of chapter 16 of [[Seminar_XI|The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis]] (1964a) to a [[discussion]] of [[alienation]] and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutivethe related concept of '''[[separation]]'''.
feature of the subject. The subject is fundamentally SPLIT, alienated from==See Also=={{See}}* [[Counterpart]]* [[Ego-ideal]]||* ''[[Extimacy]]''* [[Identification]]||* [[Imaginary]]* [[Mirror stage]]||* [[Philosophy]]* [[Psychosis]]||* [[Split]]* [[Subject]]{{Also}}
himself, and there is no escape from this division, no possibility of 'whole- ness' or synthesis.  Alienation is an inevitable consequence of the process by which the ego is constituted by identification with the counterpart: 'the initial synthesis of the ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated' (S3, 39). In Rimbaud's words, 'I is an other' (E, 23). Thus alienation belongs to the imaginary order: 'Alien- ation is constitutive of the imaginary order. Alienation is the imaginary as such' (S3, 146). Although alienation is an essential characteristic of all subjectivity, psychosis represents a more extreme form of alienation.  Lacan coined the term EXTIMACY ÕO designate the nature of this alienation, in which alterity inhabits the innermost core of the subject. Lacan devotes the whole of chapter 16 of The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (1964a) to a discussion of alienation and the related concept of separation.   == References ==<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
[[Category:Philosophy]][[Category:Psychoanalysis]][[Category:Jacques Lacan]][[Category:Imaginary]][[Category:Dictionary]][[Category:Concepts]]
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