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Since [[psychoanalytic treatment]] involves precisely such [[recollection]], the term soon came to denote all those obstacles that arise during the [[treatment]] and interrupt its [[progress]]:
<blockquote>"Whatever disturbs the progress of the [[work ]] isa resistance."<ref>{{F}} ''[[Works of Sigmund Freud|The Interpretation of Dreams]]'', 1900a. [[SE]] IV-V, 517</ref></blockquote>
[[Resistance]] manifests itself in all the ways in which the [[subject]] breaks the "[[fundamental rule]]" of saying everything that comes into his [[mind]].
=====Psychoanalytic Theory=====
Though [[present ]] in [[Freud]]'s work from the beginning, the [[concept ]] of [[resistance]] began to play an increasingly important part in [[psychoanalytic theory]] as a result of the decreasing efficacy of [[analytic treatment]] in the decade 1910-20.
As a consequence of this, [[ego-psychology]] placed increasing importance on overcoming the [[patient]]'s [[resistance]]s.
[[Lacan]] is very critical of this shift in emphasis, arguing that it easily leads to an "inquisitorial" style of [[psychoanalysis]] which sees [[resistance]] as based on the "fundamental ill will" of the patient.<ref>{{S1}} p. 30</ref>
[[Lacan]] argues that this overlooks the structural [[nature ]] of
[[resistance]] and reduces analysis to an [[imaginary]] [[dual relation]].<ref>{{E}} p. 78; {{Ec}} p. 333ff</ref>
[[Lacan]] does accept that [[psychoanalytic treatment]] involves "analysis of resistances," but only on condition that this phrase is [[understood ]] correctly, in the [[sense ]] of "[[knowing ]] at what level the answer should be pitched."<ref>{{S2}} p. 43</ref>
In other [[words]], the crucial [[thing ]] is that the [[analyst]] should be able to distinguish between interventions that are primarily orientated towards the [[imaginary]] and those that are orientated towards the [[symbolic]], and [[know ]] which are appropriate at each [[moment ]] of the [[treatment]].
=====Structural Resistance=====
This irreducible "residue" of [[resistance]] is "essential" because it is the respect for this residue that distinguishes [[psychoanalysis]] from [[suggestion]].
[[Psychoanalysis]] respects the [[right ]] of the [[patient]] to resist [[suggestion]] and indeed values that [[resistance]].
<blockquote>"When the [[subject]]'s [[resistance]] opposes [[suggestion]], it is only a [[desire]] to maintain the [[subject]]'s [[desire]]. As such it would have to be placed in the ranks of positive [[transference]]."<ref>{{E}} p.271</ref></blockquote>
The [[resistance]] of the [[analysand]] can only succeed in obstructing the [[treatment]] when it responds to and/or evokes a [[resistance]] on the part of the [[analyst]], i.e. when the [[analyst]] is drawn into the [[lure]] of [[resistance]] (as [[Freud]] was drawn into the [[lure]] of [[Dora]]'s [[resistance]]).
<blockquote>"The patient's resistance is always your own, and when a resistance succeeds it is because you [the analyst] are in it up to your neck, because you [[understand]]."<ref>{{S3}} p.48</ref></blockquote>
Thus the [[analyst]] must follow the rule of [[neutrality ]] and not be drawn into the [[lures]] set for him by the [[patient]].
<blockquote>"There is no resistance on the part of the subject."<ref>{{S2}} p.228</ref></blockquote>
<blockquote>"[[Resistance]] is the present [[state ]] of an [[interpretation]] of the [[subject]]. It is the manner in which, at the same [[time]], the subject interprets the point he's got to. ... It simply means that he [the patient] cannot move any faster."<ref>{{S2}} p.228</ref></blockquote>
[[Psychoanalytic treatment]] works on the [[principle ]] that by not forcing the [[patient]], [[resistance]] is reduced to the irreducible minimum.
Thus the [[analyst]] must avoid all forms of [[suggestion]].
This is illustrated in [[schema L]]; [[resistance]] is the [[imaginary]] axis '''a-a'''' which impedes the insistant [[speech]] of the [[Other]] (which is the axis ''A-S'').
The [[resistance]]s of the [[ego]] are [[imaginary]] [[lures]], which the [[analyst]] must be wary of [[being ]] [[deceived]] by.<ref>{{E}} p. 168</ref>
Thus it can never be the [[aim]] of [[analysis]] to "strengthen the [[ego]]," as [[ego-psychology]] claims, since this would only serve to increase [[resistance]].
[[Lacan]] also criticizes [[ego-psychology]] for confusing the concept of [[resistance]] with that of [[defense]].
However, the [[distinction ]] which [[Lacan]] draws between these two [[concepts ]] is rather different from the way in which they are distinguished in Anglo-American [[psychoanalysis]].
[[Lacan]] argues that [[defence]] is on the side of the [[subject]], whereas [[resistance]] is on the side of the [[object]].
That is, whereas [[defence]]s are relatively [[stable ]] [[symbolic]] [[structure]]s of [[subjectivity]], [[resistance]]s are more transitory forces which prevent the [[object]] from being absorbed in the [[signifying chain]].
==See Also==
For example, the agency instituting repression must be derived from the ego, the conscious part of the mind. Yet, patients on the couch behaved as if this agency was unconscious by manifesting resistance. That is, when dangerous or distasteful topics began to emerge during free association, the patient would cease to talk freely, claim that no thoughts occurred to him, say that he had forgotten what was being discussed, or in other ways become evasive. Freud said that the
force which instituted the repression and maintains it is perceived as resistance during the work of analysis.
(SE, XIX.14)
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