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The [[terms ]] to designate [[sexual ]] orientation arose only in the later nineteenth century. "[[Homosexuality]]" owes to [[work ]] by the Austro-Hungarian journalist and [[literary ]] [[figure ]] Károly Mária Kertbeny, who wished to reform prevailing sodomy laws in Prussia; in 1868 he coined the term to avoid the pejorative "pederast." First used in a [[letter]], it gained some currency and in 1880 its binary opposite—"heterosexuality"—appeared in a book by Kertbeny's friend and colleague, zoologist Karl Jager. Richard von Kafft-Ebing picked up both terms, though not systematically, for use in his Psychopathia Sexualis, first published in 1886. Not long afterward, in 1894, the [[French ]] [[intellectual ]] Marc-André Raffalovitch used the term "heterosexual" in an article published in the Archives of Criminal [[Anthropology]].
In [[Three ]] Essays on the [[Theory ]] of [[Sexuality ]] (1905d), [[Freud]]'s [[developmental ]] [[stage ]] theory gave special force to the implicitly privileged status of heterosexuality in a [[normative ]] context. He outlined a [[biological ]] and [[psychological ]] program for each [[individual]], to be elaborated by [[instinctual ]] [[objects ]] and aims in a trajectory that moves from a polymorphously [[perverse ]] disposition in infancy to heterosexual [[object ]] [[choice ]] in adolescence.
Heterosexuality in [[recent ]] years has attracted attention as an aspect of [[gender ]] and sexuality, a new [[discipline ]] of study in Anglo-American scholarship, combining traditions of [[feminist ]] scholarship, [[psychoanalytic ]] theory, and [[cultural ]] studies.
See also: Bisexuality; Ego; Homosexuality; Object, [[change ]] of/choice of; [[Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality]].[[Bibliography]]
* Freud, Sigmund. (1905d). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. SE, 7: 123-243.
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