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Optical model

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==Jacques Lacan==
[[Image:Lacan-opticalmodel.jpg|thumb|right|[[The optical model]]]]
[[Lacan]] also uses [[optical model|optical apparatuses]] at several points in his [[Work of Sigmund Freud|work]]. For example, he uses the camera to provide a "[[materialist ]] definition of the phenomenon of [[consciousness]]."<ref>{{S2}} Chapter 4.</ref> [[Lacan]] argues that [[optics]] is a useful way of approaching the [[structure]] of the [[psyche]] because [[images]] play an important [[role ]] in [[psychic]] [[structure]] <ref>{{S1}} p.76</ref>. However, like [[Freud]], [[Lacan]] warns that such an approach can never provide more than rather crude analogies, since [[optical]] [[image]]s are not the same as the kind of [[image]]s which are the [[object]] of [[psychoanalytic]] research. For this [[reason]], [[Lacan]] soon replaces [[optical]] [[image]]s with [[topological]] [[figures]] which are intended to prevent [[imaginary]] [[capture]]. Nevertheless, as [[Freud]] said of his own [[optical model]]s, "we [[need ]] the assistance of provisional [[ideas]]."<ref>{{F}} ''[[The Interpretation of Dreams]]'', 1900. [[SE]] IV-V: 536</ref>
==The Optical Model==
The [[optical model]] first appears in 1954 <ref>{{S1}} p. 124</ref>, and is reproduced in the [[seminar]] on the [[transference]] (1960-1), and elsewhere. It is basically an optical experiment which is constructed by means of a plane [[mirror]] and a concave [[mirror]]. The concave [[mirror]] produces a real [[image]] of an inverted flower-pot, hidden from view by a box, which is then reflected in the plane [[mirror]] to produce a [[virtual]] [[image]]. This [[virtual]] [[image]] is only [[vision|visible]] to a [[subject]] who places himself within a [[particular ]] area of [[vision]].
===Symbolic Structure===
The [[optical model]] illustrates the way that the [[position ]] of the [[subject]] in the [[symbolic]] [[order]] (represented by the angle of the plane mirror) determines the way in which the [[imaginary]] is articulated with the [[real]].
<blockquote>"My position in [[the imaginary ]] is only conceivable insofar as one finds a [[guide ]] beyond the imaginary, on the level of [[the symbolic ]] plane."<ref>{{S1}} p.141</ref></blockquote>
The [[optical model]] thus illustrates the primary importance of the [[symbolic]] [[order]] in [[structuring]] the [[imaginary]]. The [[action ]] of [[psychoanalytic]] [[treatment]] can be compared to the rotation of the plane [[mirror]], which alters the position of the [[subject]] in the [[symbolic]].
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