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The full title of the doctoral thesis that signaled Jacques Lacan's entry into psychiatry was De la psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité (On paranoiac psychosis as it relates to the personality). The work was dated September 7, 1932, when Lacan was thirty-one years old.{{Top}}sublimate|sublimation{{Bottom}}
Readers of the =====Sigmund Freud=====In [[Freud]]'s [[work were uniformly impressed with the breadth of scientific learning that Lacan displayed. To Georges Heuyer]], who had doubts about [[sublimation]] is a [[process]] in which the sheer quantity of bibliographical references, Lacan responded that he had, in fact, read them all[[libido]] is channelled into apparently non-[[sexual]] activities such as artistic creation and [[intellectual]] work. Furthermore, Lacan claimed [[Sublimation]] thus functions as a socially acceptable escape valve for [[excess]] sexual [[energy]] which would otherwise have to have personally evaluated about forty cases. And his familiarity with German texts clearly distinguished his scholarship from the chauvinism characteristic of the two great schools of psychiatry of the timebe [[discharged]] in socially unacceptable forms ([[perverse]] [[behavior]]) or in [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s. The French school was his model because [[logical]] conclusion of such a view is that [[complete]] [[sublimation]] would mean the high quality end of its observation all [[perversion]] and because of its elegance and precisionall [[neurosis]]. But the Germans supplied Lacan with the doctrinal authority required by his goal However, many points remain unclear in [[Freud]]'s account of methodological synthesis[[sublimation]].
"Then came Kraepelin" (=====Jacques Lacan, 1932, p. 23). Emil Kraepelin succeeded in imposing differential diagnoses in =====[[Lacan]]s takes up the field [[concept]] of the psychoses, where previously the category [[sublimation]] in his [[seminar]] of paranoia had been extended to every kind of delusion and cognitive disorder 1959-60. He follows [[Freud]] in a way clearly contradicted by observation, despite emphasizing the fact that paranoia was defined very narrowly. Lacan wrote in glowing terms the element of Johannes Lange[[social]] [[recognition]] is central to the concept, coauthor of since it is only insofar as the 1927 edition of Kraepelin'[[drive]]s Manual of Psychiatry, whose study are diverted towards this [[dimension]] of eighty-one cases noted shared social values that classical paranoia was extremely rare, and assigned the curable cases they can be said to the category delineated by Kraepelinbe sublimated. As for "genuine paranoia," the question was whether it could be acute, whether remissions were possible<ref>{{S7}} p. This was a question that Lacan asked from the outset (1932) and that would still preoccupy him twenty-five years later in "On a Question Prior to Any Possible Treatment of Psychosis" (1959144</2004). For Lacan, the work of Robert Gaupp supplied an affirmative answer to ref> It is this question. In short, Lacan endorsed Kraepelin's inclination toward a psychogenetic conception dimension of paranoia, and what shared social values which allows [[Lacan called "psychogeny" became a main theme ]] to tie in the concept of [[sublimation]] with his thesis[[discussion]] of [[ethics]]. Hence Lacan's harsh criticism of organicism, the constitutional theory, and the ideology of degeneracy—all then still prevalent in French psychiatry<ref>{{S7}} p.144</ref>
To stymie these tendencies, =====Differences - Freud and Lacan chose to speak of "personality." To solidify this notion=====However, he drew upon Ernst Kretschmer, Pierre Janet, Karl Jaspers, and, finally, Eugen Bleuler. Bleuler and the Zurich school were [[Lacan]]'s main route into psychoanalysis account of [[sublimation]] also differs from the psychiatric study of the psychoses. Lacan sought to relate mental disturbances to personality, as Janet did, and, like Kretschmer, to explain them in terms of the individual[[Freud]]'s history and "experience" (Erlebnis) (1932, p. 92), with "its social and ethical stresses," rather than by evoking "congenital defects" (1932, p. 243). All this implied on a "comprehensive" approach to psychotics consonant with the phenomenology of Jaspers. For this reason, Lacan enlisted the masters of psychiatry and psychopathology in support the open-minded approach to mental illness characteristic [[number]] of his friends at the journal L'évolution psychiatriquepoints.
Lacan argued =====Perversion=====[[Freud]]'s account implies that pathological manifestations in psychosis were "total vital responses," which, [[perversion|perverse sexuality]] as "functions a [[form]] of direct [[satisfaction]] of the personality," maintained meaningful connections with the human community (1932, p. 247). In short[[drive]] is possible, they were meaningful—a realization that defined the young Lacan's approach and influenced the choice of his inaugural case, that of "Aimée[[sublimation]] is only necessary because this direct form in prohibited by [[society]]."
Aimée was a thirty-eight-year-old woman who, with "eyes filled with [[Lacan]] however rejects the fires cocnept of hate" (1932, p. 153), had tried to stab the celebrated actress Huguette Duflos. As a result zero degree of this attempted "magnicide" on April 18, 1931satisfaction, she was immediately imprisoned. Lacan began to see her one month later at Sainte-Anne Hospital. He reconstructed "almost the full gamut of paranoid themes" (1932, p. 158): persecution, jealousy, and prejudice for the most part, themes of grandeur centered chiefly on dreams of escape and arguing that [[perversion]] is not simply a reformatory idealism, along with traces of erotomania. Her cognitive functions were unaffected. To this classic picture, which Lacan established by brute [[natural]] means of thorough biographical inquirydischarging the [[libido]], Lacan added what he considered but a decisive consideration: after twenty days of incarceration, highly [[structure]]d relation to the patient'[[drive]]s delusional state diminished dramatically. This development Lacan viewed as evidence of the acute nature of her paranoia. Connecting Aimée's criminal act with this remissionwhich are already, he set out to discover the meaning of her pathologyin themselves, and with this in mind he proposed a new diagnostic category: "self-punishment paranoia[[linguistic]] rather than [[biological]] forces."
Aimée also aroused Lacan's curiosity because of her attempts at writing. Lacan had already evinced an interest in the writing of psychotics, and in his thesis (1932) he published selected passages from "Aimée"—the name being Whereas [[Freud]] believed that of the heroine of the patient's projected novel. Aimée's writings and the sensational aspects her case brought Lacan's work to the attention of a public well beyond psychiatry. The spirit of the times saw links among art, madness, and psychoanalysis. The dreams related by André Breton in Communicating Vessels date from 1931, and his exchange of letters with Freud, which followed the publication of this book, date from 1932. René Crevelcomplete [[sublimation]] might be possible for some particularly refined or cultured [[people]], PaulÉluard, Salvador Dalí, Joë Bousquet all echoed [[Lacan's thesis. In 1933, in the first issue of the Surrealist magazine Minotaure, Dalí cited "Jacques Lacan's admirable thesis" and praised the thesis of ]] argues that "complete sublimation is not possible for the paranoiac mechanism as the force and power acting at the very root of the phenomenon of personality." Lacan took pride in this acknowledgment[[individual]]. In hisÉcrits (1966), he described his thesis as merely an introduction to "paranoiac knowledge" (<ref>{{S7}} p. 65), an unmistakable allusion to Dalí's "paranoiac-critical method." He never revised this attitude: as late as December 16, 1975, he declared, "Paranoid psychosis and personality have no relationship because they are one and the same thing."91</ref>
Left-wing philosophers likewise fell under the spell of Lacan=====Object=====In [[Freud]]'s book. Paul Nizanaccount, a careful reader [[sublimation]] involves the redirection of Jaspers, published the [[drive]] to a summary of it the communist daily L'humanité for February 10, 1933; different (non-sexual) object. In [[Lacan]]'s talk of a "concrete" psychology related to "social reality" sufficed to open that particular door. Jean Bernieraccount, in La critique socialhowever, a journal to what changes is not the left of object but its [[position]] in the Communist Party, offered a brilliant reading of Lacan's thesis, despite being marred by misunderstandings [[structure]] of psychoanalysis so common among revolutionary critics[[fantasy]].
Lacan's doctoral thesis was significant in another way too: it was his declaration of allegiance to psychoanalysis. He undertook a personal analysis and trained under the auspices of the recently established Société psychanalytique de Paris (Paris Psychoanalytic Society). In his thesis[[other]] [[words]], he hailed "[[sublimation]] does not involve directing the scientific import of Freudian doctrine[[drive]] to a different [[object]]," but rather changing the only theory capable [[nature]] of apprehending the "true nature of pathology," as opposed [[object]] to other methods, whichthe [[drive]] was already directed, despite their a "very valuable observational syntheses[[change]] of object in itself," failed to clear up uncertainties (1932, p. 255). Lacan's study of something which is made possible because the case of Aimée and his overall view of the psychoses were thoroughly imbued with Freudian teachings. Thus he saw [[drive]] is "already deeply marked by the psychogenesis articulation of Aimée's pathology in light of the theory of the development of the libido, as rounded out a few years earlier by Karl Abraham (1924/1927). And he understood delusion as the unconscious offering itself to the understanding of consciousness[[signifier]]. "Ça joue au clair," Lacan reiterated in his seminar on the psychoses (1981<ref>{{S7}} p. 293</1993, session of 25 January 1956).ref>
For Lacan, the notion The [[sublime]] quality of personality certainly implied "a conception an [[object]] is thus not due to any intrinsic property of oneself" (1932, p. 42)the [[object]] itself, but in his view this conception was based on "ideal" images brought up into consciousness. Under simply an effect of the acknowledged influence of Angelo Hesnard and René Laforgue[[object]]'s report to the Fifth Conference of French-Speaking Psychoanalysts position in June 1930, Lacan advanced his hypothesis of psychosis as "self-punishment" under the influence [[symbolic]] [[structure]] of the superego. He suggested that a nosological distinction be drawn for cases where an element of hate and a "combative attitude" turn back upon the subject in the shape of self-accusation and self-depreciation, and concluded by proposing the category of "psychoses of the super-ego," to include contentious and self-punishing forms of paranoia (1932, p. 338)[[fantasy]].
The most striking aspect of =====Death Drive=====While [[Lacan's thesis, in the context of the time, was the evidence it offered of his solid Freudian grounding, gleaned in part, no doubt, from his translation into French, in that same year of 1932, of ]] follows [[Freud's paper "Some Neurotic Mechanisms ]] in Jealousy, Paranoia, linking [[sublimation]] with [[creativity]] and Homosexuality" (1922b [1921[art]). What Lacan drew from ], he complicates this important work underlay his assertion that "Aimée's entire delusion" could "be understood as an increasingly centrifugal displacement of a hate whose direct object she wished to misapprehend" (1932, p. 282). At by also linking it with the beginning of his discussion, Lacan derived a general proposition from the same source: "The developmental distance, according to Freud, that separates the homosexual [[death drive, the cause of traumatic repression, from the point of narcissistic fixation, which reveals a completed regression, is a measure of the seriousness of the psychosis in any given case" (1932, ]].<ref>{{S4}} p. 262).431</ref>
The case of Aimée continued to play a part in Lacan's life. For one, he had good cause to remember it when, years later, Aimée turned out to Several reasons can be the mother of one of his patients, the psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu. Furthermore, the themes explored in De la psychose paranoïaque continued to preoccupy him in his later work. Most significantly, his resolutely psychoanalytic approach to the psychoses was confirmed by his defining work of the 1950s (1993, 2004), whose great theoretical import was rivaled only by what he called "fidelity adduced to the formal envelope of the symptom" (1966, p. 66). This remark does far more than endorse the precepts of a grand clinical tradition; it distills certain constants of Lacan's thinking. As he adds in the same passage, the formal envelope of the symptom may stretch to a "limit where it reverses direction and becomes creative." This was a crucial issue for Lacan throughout his life, and in many different ways. The culmination of explain this concern was his engagement with the work of James Joyce, which informed his seminar of 1975-1976 on the "sinthome" (1976-1977). On the same page ofÉcrits (p. 66), Lacan, reviewing his own past itinerary, described what might be considered the function of the symptom: to keep up, despite the ever-present risk of slipping, with what he called "confronting the abyss." Psychosis exemplified such confrontation, which was why Lacan returned here to how "passing to the act" may serve to "fan the fire" of delusion—an original theme explored in his thesis. How such acts relate to literary creation, the function of the symptom, and passing to the act were thus just so many issues first broached in the case of AiméeBERNARD TOBOUL See also: Anzieu# Firstly, Didier; Bleuler, Paul Eugen;Évolution psychiatrique (l' -) (Developments in Psychiatry); Lacan, Jacques-MarieÉmile; Paranoia.Bibliography  * Abraham, Karl. (1927). A short study of the development of the libido, viewed in the light of mental disorders. In Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (Douglas Bryan and Alix Strachey, Trans.). London: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1924) * Allouch, Jean. (1994). Marguerite, ou l'aimée de Lacan (rev. ed.). Paris: E.P.E.L. * Dalí, Salvador. (1933). Le mythe tragique de l'Angélus de Millet. Minotaure, 1. * Freud, Sigmund. (1922b [1921]). Some neurotic mechanisms in jealousy, paranoia, and homosexuality. SE: 18: 221-232. * Lacan, Jacques. (1932). De la psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité. Paris: Librairie le François. * ——. (1966).Écrits. Paris: Seuil. * ——. (1976-1977). Le séminaire XXIII, 1975-76: Le sinthome. Ornicar? 2-5. * ——. (1993). The seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book 3: The psychoses, 1955-1956 (Russell Grigg, Trans.). London: Routledge. (Original work published 1981) * ——. (2002). On a question prior to any possible treatment of psychosis. In hisÉcrits: A selection (Bruce Fink, Trans.). New York: Norton. (Original work published 1959)   ==new== The term '[[sublimation]]' (Fr. ''sublimation'') is one concept of the most familiar terms in the vocabulary of [[psychoanalysis]]. ==Sublimation and Freud==[[Sigmund Freud]] never developed a coherent theory (or account) of [[sublimation]]. [[Sublimation]] is a term widely used in [[psychoanalytic theory]] to describe the [[process]] in which the [[libido]] [[sexuality|sexual]] [[death drive]] (psychic or erotic energy) is channelled, converted, transformed into an apparently non-sexual activity, such as [[art|artistic creation]] and intellectual work, or redirected, diverted toward an apparently non-sexual aim or a socially valued [[object]], such as [[art|artistic creation]] and intellectual work, into creative and intellectual activity, into "socially useful" achievements.<ref>Freud 1933</ref> [[Sublimation]] is a type of [[coping|coping mechanism]] or [[defense mechanism]], which functions itself seen as a socially acceptable escape valve for excess sexual or erotic energy which would otherwise have to be discharged in socially unacceptable forms (perverse behaviour) or in neurotic symptoms. Erotic energy is only allowed limited expression due to [[Psychological repression|repression]]. The logical conclusion of such a view is that complete sublimation would mean the end product of all perversion and all neurosis. [[Civilization]] has been able to place "social aims higher than the sexual ones."<ref>Introductory Lectures 16.345</ref> ===Sublimation and Art===This usage appears to be influenced by the aesthetics of the sublime.In his study of Leonardo da Vinci, Freud uses 'sublimation' in this sense to describe the transformation of theyoung Leonardo's sexual curiosity into a spirit of intellectual inquiry.<ref>1910a</ref>Whilst this produced great works of art, the sublimation of [[libido]] into a general urge to know meant that a small quota of Leonardo's sexual ennergy was directe dtowards sexual aims, and resulted in a stunted adult sexuality.Elsewhere Frud suggests tht a mature woman's capacity to pursue an intellectual profession may be a sublimated expression of her childhood desire to acquire a penis. ==Sublimation and Lacan==Lacan's account of sublimation differs from Freud's on a number of points. # Freud argues that own [[sublimation]] is only necessary because this direct [[satisfaction]] of the [[drive]] (although theoretically possible) is [[prohibition|prohibited]] by [[society]]. # Freud's account implies that [[perversion|perverse]] [[sexuality]] as a form of direct [[satisfaction]] of the [[drive]] is possible, and that [[sublimation]] is only necessary because this direct form is [[prohibition|prohibited]] by [[society]]. Lacan conceives of [[perversion]] in a highly structured relation to the [[drive]]s which are already, in themselves, [[linguistic]] rather than [[biology|biological forces]].<ref>see Zizek, 1991: 83-4)</ref> # Whereas Freud believed that complete [[sublimation]] might be possible for some particularly refined or [[culture]]d people, Lacan argues that "complete sublimation is not possible for the individual."<ref>{{S7, 91</ref>This is not to say that the "free mobility of the libido" (Introductory Lectures 16}} p.346) is ever fully contained: "sublimation is never able to deal with more than a certain fraction of libido."<ref>Introductory Lectures 16.346212</ref> # In Freud's accountSecondly, [[sublimation]] involves the redirection of the [[death drive]] to a different (non-sexual) [[object]]. In Lacan's account, [[sublimation]] does is not involve directing the drive to a different object, but rather changing the (position of the object in the structure of fantasy) nature of the object to which the drive was already directed, only a "change of object in itself," something which is made possible because the drive is "already deeply marked by the articulation of the signifier."<ref>S7, 293</ref>The [[sublimedestruction]] quality of an [[object]] is thus not due to any intrinsic property of the object itselfdrive, but simply an effect of the object's position in the [[symbolic]] [[structure]] of [[fantasy]]. Sublimation relocates an object in the position of the [[thing]]. The Lacanian formula for sublimation is thus that "it raises an object ... to the [[dignity of the Thing]]."<ref>S7, l 12</ref> # Lacan (following Freud) associates [[sublimation]] with [[creativity]] and [[art]], but also links it with the [[death drive]].<ref>S4, 431</ref>## Firstly, the concept of the [[death drive]] is itself seen as a product of Freud's own [[sublimation]].<ref>S7, 212</ref>## Secondly, the death drive is not only a "destruction drive," but also a "will to create crate from zero."<ref>{{S7, }} p.212-133</ref> ## Thirdly, the [[sublime object]], through [[being ]] elevated to the [[dignity of the [[Thing]], exerts a [[power ]] of [[fascination ]] which leads ultimately to [[death]] and destruction. ==Sublimation and Ethics==In his 1959-60 [[seminar]], ''[[The Ethics of Psychoanalysis]],'' [[Jacques Lacan]] emphasizes the element of [[social recognition]] as central to the concept, and reflects upon the dimension of shared social values (towards which the sublimated drives are diverted) in his discussion of ethics.<ref>[[Jacques Lacan|Lacan, Jacques]]. [[The Ethics of Psychoanalysis]]. p. 107, 144</ref>  <ref>[[Seminar XI]] sublimation, 11, 165</ref>
==See Also==
* [[Sublime Object]]{{See}}
* [[Art]]
* [[libidoDeath drive]]||* [[Drive]]* [[driveEthics]]||* [[Fantasy]]* [[Libido]]||* [[death driveStructure]]* [[The Ethics of PsychoanalysisThing]]{{Also}}
== References ==
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