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Parapraxis

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A parapraxis is an act that appears to be unintentional but can be understood, through In [[psychoanalytic explorationtheory]], to be perfectly motivated and unconsciously determined. A brief and delimited disturbance that may be spontaneously explained a [[bungled action]] such as a [[slip of the result of chance or inattention, a parapraxis may be readily perceived by its initiator or tongue]] whose [[goal]] is not achieved and which is replaced by a third party to be a "mistake[[another]]."
Parapraxes include a wide range of events, including failures of memoryLike [[symptom]]s, slips of the tongue or pen, mistakes, and bungled or accidental acts. A parapraxis cannot be explained [[parapraxes]] are [[interpret]]ed by referring to the nature of the "slip" itself, but psychoanalytic hypotheses make it possible for it to be described simultaneously [[Freud]] as [[compromise formation]]s resulting from a mistake [[conflict]] between [[conscious]] [[intentions]] and not a mistake, depending on one'[[repressed]] [[feeling]]s point of viewor impulses.
Parapraxes interested Freud as early as 1890. In letters to Wilhelm Fliess, he created a virtual collection of examples communicated to him by correspondents. Parapraxes represented, in fact, an important demonstration of disturbances created by the unconscious. As opposed to dreams, parapraxes tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience A [[parapraxis]] is an easy way [[act]] that appears to grasp psychoanalysis. Furthermorebe [[unintentional]] but can be [[understood]], parapraxes constitute one of the pillars of the psychopathology of everyday lifethrough [[psychoanalytic]] exploration, which Freud considered necessary to understand mental pathology in a broader contextbe perfectly motivated and [[unconscious]]ly determined.
Freud discusses parapraxes in two A brief and delimited [[disturbance]] that may be spontaneously explained as the result of his major works: Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901b) and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916-17a chance or inattention, a [[parapraxis]] may be readily perceived by its initiator or by a [[1915-17third]])party to be a "mistake."
Beyond the anecdotal nature [[Parapraxes]] include a wide range of many of the examples in these two worksevents, parapraxes clearly raise an issue fundamental for psychoanalytic thought—namely, the link between psychic determinism and the unconscious. Freud was led to clarify his position toward the notion including failures of "chance" (as discussed in the review Topique[[memory]], 1997) as differentiated from superstition: "I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden thing about the future shape slips of reality; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental activity does on the other hand disclose something hiddentongue or pen, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to external reality[mistake]. I believe in external (real) chance]s, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) and [[bungled]] or accidental events[[acts]]." (Freud, 1901b, p328)
The link between parapraxes and psychopathology, moreover, is established, according A [[parapraxis]] cannot be explained by referring to Freud, uniquely through the fact that, in [[nature]] of the case of chance events in a real world, "slips[[slip]]" involve the most insignificant psychic events. By contrastitself, neurotic symptoms are related to the most important psychic functions from both individual and social perspectives. In both instances, however, the same processes enable such symptoms but [[psychoanalytic]] hypotheses make it possible for it to be understood, that is, described simultaneously as compromise formations located between desire a [[mistake]] and defensenot a [[mistake]], between a subjectdepending on one's conscious intention and repressionpoint of view.
SOPHIE DE MIJOLLA-MELLOR[[Parapraxes]] interested [[Freud]] as early as 1890.
See also: "Claims In letters to [[Wilhelm Fliess]], he created a [[virtual]] collection of Psychoanalysis examples communicated to Scientific Interest"; Psychopathology of Everyday Life, The; Repressionhim by correspondents.Bibliography
* Freud[[Parapraxes]] represented, Sigmund. (1901b). The psychopathology in fact, an important demonstration of everyday life. SE,6. * ——. (1916-17a[1915-17[disturbance]]s created by the [[unconscious]]). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. SE, 15-16. * Topique. (1997).
As opposed to [[dream]]s, [[parapraxes]] tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience an easy way to grasp [[psychoanalysis]].
Furthermore, [[parapraxes]] constitute one of the pillars of the [[psychopathology]] of everyday [[life]], which [[Freud]] considered necessary to [[understand]] [[mental]] [[pathology]] in a broader context.
[[Freud]] discusses [[parapraxes]] in two of his major works: [[Psychopathology of Everyday Life]] (1901) and [[Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis]] (1915-17).
Beyond the anecdotal nature of many of the examples in these two works, [[parapraxes]] clearly raise an issue fundamental for [[psychoanalytic]] [[thought]]—namely, the link between [[psychic]] [[determinism]] and the [[unconscious]].
[[Freud]] was led to clarify his [[position]] toward the [[notion]] of "chance" as differentiated from [[superstition]]:
<blockquote>"I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden [[thing]] [[about]] the [[future]] shape of [[reality]]; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental [[activity]] does on the [[other]] hand disclose something hidden, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to [[external]] reality]. I believe in external ([[real]]) chance, it is [[true]], but not in [[internal]] ([[psychical]]) accidental events."<ref>Freud, 1901b, p328</ref></blockquote>
The link between [[parapraxes]] and [[psychopathology]], moreover, is established, according to [[Freud]], uniquely through the fact that, in the [[case]] of [[chance]] [[event]]s in a real [[world]], "slips" involve the most insignificant [[psychic]] [[event]]s.
 
By contrast, [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s are related to the most important [[psychic]] functions from both [[individual]] and [[social]] perspectives.
 
In both instances, however, the same [[processes]] enable such [[symptom]]s to be understood, that is, as compromise [[formation]]s located between [[desire]] and [[defense]], between a [[subject]]'s [[conscious]] [[intention]] and [[repression]].
 
 
==Lapsus==
Fault made by inadvertency consisting in substituting a [[word]] for that which one wanted to say or write.
 
 
==See Also==
* "[[Claims of Psychoanalysis to Scientific Interest]]"
* [[Psychopathology of Everyday Life]]
* [[Repression]]
 
==References==
<references/>
* [[Freud, Sigmund]]. (1901b). The psychopathology of everyday life. SE,6.
* ——. (1916-17a[1915-17]). Introductory lectures on [[psycho]]-[[analysis]]. SE, 15-16.
* Topique. (1997).
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
{{Encore}} p. 37''n''
: ''See also'' [[Slips of the tongue]]
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