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Louis Althusser

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Althusser has had broad influence in the areas of [[Marxist philosophy]] and [[post-structuralism]]. [[Interpellation]] has been popularised and adapted by the [[feminist]] philosopher and critic [[Judith Butler]]. The attempt to view history as a process without a [[subject (philosophy)|subject]] garnered sympathy from [[Jacques Derrida]]. [[Historical materialism]] was defended as a coherent doctrine from the standpoint of [[analytic philosophy]] by [[G. A. Cohen]]. The interest in [[structure and agency]] sparked by Althusser was to play a role in [[Anthony Giddens]]'s [[theory of structuration]]. Althusser was vehemently attacked by British [[historian]] [[E. P. Thompson]] in his book ''The Poverty of Theory''. As well as this, several of Althusser's students became eminent intellectuals in the [[1970s]], [[1980s]] and [[1990s]]: [[Alain Badiou]] and [[Étienne Balibar]] in [[philosophy]], [[Jacques Ranciere]] in [[history]] and the [[philosophy of history]], [[Pierre Macherey]] in [[literary criticism]] and [[Nicos Poulantzas]] in [[sociology]]. The prominent [[Guevarist]] [[Régis Debray]] also studied under Althusser.
Louis Althusser
[[French]] [[Marxist]] [[philosopher]].
Perhaps the most sophisticated of postware [[Marxist]]s, [[Althusser] introduced a new degree of intellectual rigour into [[Marx]]ist [[philosophy]] by reworking its basic concepts.
His contributions to the theory of [[ideology]] as [[interpellation]], and his concept of the [[ideological state apparatus]] (1970), have been particularly influential, as has his attempt to conceptualize a theoretical link between [[Marxism]] and [[psychoanalysis]] (1993).
Althusser owes his initial celebrity to the essays collected in his ''For Marx'' (1965) and to ''Reading "Capital"'' (1965), which originated in a seminar held at the Ecole Normale Superieure in 1964-5.
Their publication almost coincided with that of [[Lacan]]'s [[Ecrits]]s and [[Foucault]]'s ''Les Mots et les choses (1966) and all three authors tended, to their chagrin, to be seen as amjor representatives of [[structuralism]].
In retrospect, [[Althusser]] looks less like a [[structuralist]] [[Marxist]] thna a [[Marxist]] heir to the epistemological tradition of [[Bachelard]] and, in particular, Canguilhem.
The titles of the two publications of 1965 define the Althusserian project with remarkable accuracy.

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