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#redirect The [[terms]] to designate [[sexual]] orientation arose only in the later nineteenth century. "[[Homosexuality]]" owes to [[work]] by the Austro-Hungarian journalist and [[literary]] [[figure]] Károly Mária Kertbeny, who wished to reform prevailing sodomy laws in Prussia; in 1868 he coined the term to avoid the pejorative "pederast." First used in a [[letter]], it gained some currency and in 1880 its binary opposite—"heterosexuality"—appeared in a book by Kertbeny's friend and colleague, zoologist Karl Jager. Richard von Kafft-Ebing picked up both terms, though not systematically, for use in his Psychopathia Sexualis, first published in 1886. Not long afterward, in 1894, the [[French]] [[intellectual]] Marc-André Raffalovitch used the term "heterosexual" in an article published in the Archives of Criminal [[Anthropology]]. In [[Three]] Essays on the [[Theory]] of [[Sexuality]] (1905d), [[Freud]]'s [[developmental]] [[stage]] theory gave special force to the implicitly privileged status of heterosexuality in a [[normative]] context. He outlined a [[biological]] and [[psychological]] program for each [[individual]], to be elaborated by [[instinctual]] [[objects]] and aims in a trajectory that moves from a polymorphously [[perverse]] disposition in infancy to heterosexual [[object]] [[choice]] in adolescence. Heterosexuality in [[recent]] years has attracted attention as an aspect of [[gender]] and sexuality, a new [[discipline]] of study in Anglo-American scholarship, combining traditions of [[feminist]] scholarship, [[psychoanalytic]] theory, and [[cultural]] studies. BERTRAND VICHYN See also: Bisexuality; Ego; Homosexuality; Object, [[change]] of/choice of; [[Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality]].[[Bibliography]]  * Freud, Sigmund. (1905d). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. SE, 7: 123-243. [[Category:Enotes]][[Category:Psychoanalysis]][[Category:Terms]][[Category:Concepts]][[Category:Sigmund Freud]]
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