Difference between revisions of "Algebra"

From No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis
Jump to: navigation, search
(The LinkTitles extension automatically added links to existing pages (https://github.com/bovender/LinkTitles).)
 
(12 intermediate revisions by one other user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:Lacan-algebra.jpg|thumb|right|[[List of algebraic symbols]]]]
+
{{Topp}}algèbre{{Bottom}}
  
[[Algebra]] ([[Fr]]. ''[[algèbre]]'')  is a branch of [[mathematics]]  
+
[[Algebra]] is a branch of [[mathematics]] which reduces the solution of problems to manipulations of [[symbolic]] expressions.
* which reduces the solution of problems to manipulations of [[symbolic]] expressions, and
 
* concerned with the properties and relationships of abstract entities represented in symbolic form.
 
  
 +
==Formalization==
 
In 1955, [[Lacan]] begins to use [[algebraic]] [[symbol]]s -- in an attempt to [[formalize]] [[psychoanalysis]].
 
In 1955, [[Lacan]] begins to use [[algebraic]] [[symbol]]s -- in an attempt to [[formalize]] [[psychoanalysis]].
  
''[[Formalization|Click here]] to read about the [[Formalization|Formalization of Psychoanalysis]]''
+
[[Three]] main reasons lie behind this attempt at [[formalization]].
<BR>
+
 
==List of Algebraic Symbols==
+
:1. [[Formalization]] is necessary for [[psychoanalysis]] to acquire [[scientific]] status.
The [[algebraic]] [[symbol]]s used by [[Lacan]], which appear principally in the [[matheme]]s, [[schema l]] and the [[graph of desire]], are listed below, together with their most common [[meaning]].  
+
 
<BR><BR>
+
:Just as [[Claude Lévi-Strauss]] uses quasi-[[mathematical]] [[formulae]] in an attempt to set [[anthropology]] on a more [[scientific]] footing, [[Lacan]] attempts to do the same for [[psychoanalysis]]
{| style="width:75%;" border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0" align="center"
+
 
! align="center" | ALGEBRAIC SYMBOL !! align="center" | COMMON MEANING
+
:[[Lacan]] used quasi-mathematical formulae in an attempt to set [[psychoanalysis]] on a more [[scientific]] footing.
|-
+
 
| align="center" | '''A'''
+
:2. [[Formalization]] can provide a core of [[psychoanalytic theory]] which can be transmitted integrally even to those who have never experienced [[psychoanalytic treatment]].
| align="center" | the [[big Other]]
+
 
|-
+
:The [[matheme|formulae]] thus become an essential aspect of the [[training]] of [[psychoanalysis]] which take their [[place]] alongside [[training|training analysis]] as a medium for the transmission of [[psychoanalytic]] [[knowledge]].
| align="center" size="x-large" | <strike>'''A'''</strike>
+
 
| align="center" | the [[bar]]red [[Other]]
+
:3. [[Formalization]] of [[psychoanalytic theory]] in [[terms]] of [[algebraic]] [[symbols]] is a means of preventing [[knowledge|intuitive understanding]], which [[Lacan]] regards as an [[imaginary]] [[lure]] which hinders access to the [[symbolic]].
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''a'''</i>
 
| align="center" | (see ''[[objet petit a]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''a''''</i>
 
| align="center" | (see ''[[objet petit a]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:BigS.gif]]
 
| align="center" | 1. (before 1957) the [[subject]]<BR>2.(from 1957 on) the [[signifier]]<BR>3. (in the [[matheme|schema]]s of [[Sade]]) the raw [[subject]] of [[pleasure]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:StrikeS.gif]]
 
| align="center" | the [[bar]]red [[subject]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:SS1.gif]]
 
| align="center" | the [[master signifier]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:SS2.gif]]
 
| align="center" | the [[signifying chain]]/[[knowledge]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''s'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[signified]] (in the [[Saussure]]an [[sign|algorithm]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:StrikeS(A).gif]]
 
| align="center" | the [[signifier]] of a [[lack]] in the [[Other]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | [[Image:S(a).gif]]
 
| align="center" | the [[signification]] of the [[Other]] (the [[message]]/[[symptom]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''D'''
 
| align="center" | [[Demand]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''d'''</i>
 
| align="center" | [[Desire]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''m'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[ego]] (''[[moi]]'')
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''i'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[specular image]] ([[schema R]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''i(a)'''</i>
 
| align="center" | 1. the [[specular image]] ([[graph of desire]])<BR>2. the [[ideal ego]] ([[optical model]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''I'''
 
| align="center" | the [[ego-ideal]] ([[schema R]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''I(A)'''
 
| align="center" | the [[ego-ideal]] ([[graph of desire]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''Π'''
 
| align="center" | the [[real]] [[phallus]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''Φ'''
 
| align="center" | the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]] [upper-case phi]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''(-φ)'''
 
| align="center" | the [[imaginary]] [[phallus]] [lower-case phi]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''S'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[symbolic]] [[order]] ([[schema R]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''R'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[order|field]] of [[reality]] ([[schema R]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''I'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[imaginary]] [[order]] ([[schema R]])
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''P'''
 
| align="center" | the [[symbolic]] [[father]] / [[Name-of-the-Father]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | <i>'''p'''</i>
 
| align="center" | the [[imaginary]] [[father]]  
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''M'''
 
| align="center" | the [[symbolic]] [[mother]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''J'''
 
| align="center" | ''[[Jouissance]]''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''Jφ'''
 
| align="center" | [[phallic]] ''[[jouissance]]''
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''JA'''
 
| align="center" | the ''[[jouissance]]'' of the [[Other]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''E'''
 
| align="center" | the [[statement]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''e'''
 
| align="center" | the [[enunciation]]
 
|-
 
| align="center" | '''V'''
 
| align="center" | the will-to-enjoy (''volonté de jouissance'')
 
|-
 
|}
 
<BR><BR>
 
  
==Development of the Symbols==
+
:Rather than [[being]] [[understood]] in an intuitive way, the [[algebraic]] [[symbols]] are to be used, manipulated and read in various different ways.<ref>{{E}} p.313</ref>
It is important to remember that the [[symbol]]s do not always refer to the same concept throughout [[Lacan]]'s work, but are used in different ways as his work develops.  
 
  
Therefore some caution should be exercised when referring to the list of equivalences above.
+
==List==
 +
[[Image:Lacan-algebra.jpg|thumb|right|[[List of algebraic symbols]]]]
 +
The [[algebraic]] [[symbol]]s used by [[Lacan]], which appear principally in the [[matheme]]s, [[schema l]] and the [[graph of desire]], are [[List of Algebraic Symbols|listed here]], together with their most common [[meaning]].
  
==Typographic Details==
+
''[[List of algebraic symbols|Click here]] to view the [[List of Algebraic Symbols]]''
The typographic details and diacritics are extremely important in [[Lacan]]ian [[algebra]].
 
The difference between upper- and lower-case [[symbol]]s, the difference between italicised and non-italicised [[symbol]]s, the use of the apostrophe, the minus [[sign]], and subscripts; all these details play their part in the [[algebraic]] system.
 
  
For example the upper-case letters usually refer to the [[symbolic]] [[order]], whereas the lower-case letters usually refer to the [[imaginary]].  
+
==Development==
 +
It is important to [[remember]] that the [[symbol]]s do not always refer to the same [[concept]] throughout [[Lacan]]'s [[work]], but are used in different ways as his work develops.  Therefore some caution should be exercised when referring to the [[list]] of [[equivalences]] above.
  
The use of the [[bar]] is also important.
+
==Details==
 +
The typographic details and diacritics are extremely important in [[Lacan]]ian [[algebra]].
 +
The [[difference]] between upper- and lower-[[case]] [[symbol]]s, the difference between italicised and non-italicised [[symbol]]s, the use of the apostrophe, the minus [[sign]], and subscripts; all these details play their part in the [[algebraic]] [[system]].  For example the upper-case letters usually refer to the [[symbolic]] [[order]], whereas the lower-case letters usually refer to the [[imaginary]].  The use of the [[bar]] is also important.
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 +
{{See}}
 +
* [[Bar]]
 
* [[Formalization]]
 
* [[Formalization]]
 +
||
 
* [[Mathematics]]
 
* [[Mathematics]]
 
* [[Matheme]]
 
* [[Matheme]]
 +
||
 
* [[Science]]
 
* [[Science]]
 +
* [[Symbol]]
 +
{{Also}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 +
</div>
  
==See Also==
 
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 
[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
 
[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
 +
[[Category:Science]]
 
[[Category:Dictionary]]
 
[[Category:Dictionary]]
 
[[Category:Concepts]]
 
[[Category:Concepts]]
[[Category:Science]]
 
 
[[Category:Terms]]
 
[[Category:Terms]]
 +
{{OK}}
 +
 +
__NOTOC__

Latest revision as of 20:25, 23 May 2019

French: algèbre

Algebra is a branch of mathematics which reduces the solution of problems to manipulations of symbolic expressions.

Formalization

In 1955, Lacan begins to use algebraic symbols -- in an attempt to formalize psychoanalysis.

Three main reasons lie behind this attempt at formalization.

1. Formalization is necessary for psychoanalysis to acquire scientific status.
Just as Claude Lévi-Strauss uses quasi-mathematical formulae in an attempt to set anthropology on a more scientific footing, Lacan attempts to do the same for psychoanalysis
Lacan used quasi-mathematical formulae in an attempt to set psychoanalysis on a more scientific footing.
2. Formalization can provide a core of psychoanalytic theory which can be transmitted integrally even to those who have never experienced psychoanalytic treatment.
The formulae thus become an essential aspect of the training of psychoanalysis which take their place alongside training analysis as a medium for the transmission of psychoanalytic knowledge.
3. Formalization of psychoanalytic theory in terms of algebraic symbols is a means of preventing intuitive understanding, which Lacan regards as an imaginary lure which hinders access to the symbolic.
Rather than being understood in an intuitive way, the algebraic symbols are to be used, manipulated and read in various different ways.[1]

List

The algebraic symbols used by Lacan, which appear principally in the mathemes, schema l and the graph of desire, are listed here, together with their most common meaning.

Click here to view the List of Algebraic Symbols

Development

It is important to remember that the symbols do not always refer to the same concept throughout Lacan's work, but are used in different ways as his work develops. Therefore some caution should be exercised when referring to the list of equivalences above.

Details

The typographic details and diacritics are extremely important in Lacanian algebra. The difference between upper- and lower-case symbols, the difference between italicised and non-italicised symbols, the use of the apostrophe, the minus sign, and subscripts; all these details play their part in the algebraic system. For example the upper-case letters usually refer to the symbolic order, whereas the lower-case letters usually refer to the imaginary. The use of the bar is also important.

See Also

References

  1. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p.313