Difference between revisions of "Alienation"

From No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis
Jump to: navigation, search
(The LinkTitles extension automatically added links to existing pages (https://github.com/bovender/LinkTitles).)
 
(11 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{Top}}aliénation]]'', [[German]]: ''[[Entfremdung{{Bottom}}
+
{{Topp}}alié[[nation]]]]'', [[German]]: ''[[Entfremdung{{Bottom}}
  
 
==Sigmund Freud==
 
==Sigmund Freud==
Line 5: Line 5:
  
 
==Jacques Lacan==
 
==Jacques Lacan==
 +
===References===
 
In [[Lacan]]'s [[Jacques Lacan:Bibliography|work]] the term implies both [[psychiatric]] and [[philosophical]] references:
 
In [[Lacan]]'s [[Jacques Lacan:Bibliography|work]] the term implies both [[psychiatric]] and [[philosophical]] references:
  
==Psychiatry== 
+
;Psychiatry
[[French]] [[psychiatry]] in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of mental illness as ''[[alienation|aliénation mentale]]'', and a common term in [[French]] for "[[madness|madman]]" is ''[[alienation|aliéné]].''<ref>{{Ec}} p. 154</ref>
+
[[French]] [[psychiatry]] in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of [[mental]] [[illness]] as ''[[alienation|aliénation mentale]]'', and a common term in [[French]] for "[[madness|madman]]" is ''[[alienation|aliéné]].''<ref>{{Ec}} p. 154</ref>
  
==Philosophy==
+
;Philosophy
The term "[[alienation]]" is the usual translation for the [[German]] term ''[[alienation|Entfremdung]]'' which features in the [[philosophy]] of [[Hegel]] and [[Marx]].
+
The term "[[alienation]]" is the usual [[translation]] for the [[German]] term ''[[alienation|Entfremdung]]'' which features in the '''[[philosophy]]''' of [[Hegel]] and [[Marx]].
  
However, the [[Lacan]]ian concept of [[alienation]] differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the [[Hegel]]ian and [[Marx]]ist tradition.<ref>{{S11}} p. 215</ref>
+
However, the [[Lacan]]ian [[concept]] of [[alienation]] differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the [[Hegel]]ian and [[Marx]]ist [[tradition]].<ref>{{S11}} p. 215</ref>
  
==Subject==
+
===Subject===
For [[Lacan]], [[alienation]] is not an accident that befalls the [[subject]] and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the [[subject]].  
+
For [[Lacan]], [[alienation]] is not an accident that befalls the '''[[subject]]''' and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the '''[[subject]]'''.  
  
The [[subject]] is fundamentally [[split]], [[alienation|alienated]] from himself, and there is no escape from this [[division]], no possibility of "[[wholeness]]" or [[synthesis]].
+
The [[subject]] is fundamentally '''[[split]]''', [[alienation|alienated]] from himself, and there is no escape from this [[division]], no possibility of "[[wholeness]]" or [[synthesis]].
  
==Ego==
+
===Ego===
[[Alienation]] is an inevitable consequence of the process by which the [[ego]] is constituted by [[identification]] with the [[counterpart]]:  
+
[[Alienation]] is an inevitable consequence of the [[process]] by which the '''[[ego]]''' is constituted by '''[[identification]]''' with the [[counterpart]]:  
  
<blockquote>"The initial synthesis of the ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated."<ref>{{S3}} p. 39</ref></blockquote>
+
<blockquote>"The initial synthesis of the ''ego'' is essentially an ''alter ego'', it is alienated."<ref>{{S3}} p. 39</ref></blockquote>
  
In Rimbaud's words, "I is an other."<ref>{{E}} p. 23</ref>
+
In Rimbaud's [[words]], "I is an [[other]]."<ref>{{E}} p. 23</ref>
  
==Imaginary==
+
===Imaginary===
Thus [[alienation]] belongs to the [[imaginary]] [[order]]:  
+
Thus [[alienation]] belongs to the '''[[imaginary]] [[order]]''':  
<blockquote>"Alienation is constitutive of the imaginary order. Alienation is the imaginary as such."<ref>{{S3}} p. 146</ref></blockquote>
 
  
==Psychosis==
+
<blockquote>"Alienation is constitutive of [[the imaginary]] order. Alienation is [[The Imaginary|the imaginary]] as such."<ref>{{S3}} p. 146</ref></blockquote>
Although [[alienation]] is an essential characteristic of all [[subjectivity]], [[psychosis]] represents a more extreme form of [[alienation]].
 
  
=="Extimacy"==
+
===Psychosis===
[[Lacan]] coined the term ''[[extimacy]]'' to designate the nature of this [[alienation]], in which [[alterity]] inhabits the innermost core of the [[subject]].  
+
Although [[alienation]] is an essential characteristic of all [[subjectivity]], '''[[psychosis]]''' represents a more extreme [[form]] of [[alienation]].
 +
 
 +
==="Extimacy"===
 +
[[Lacan]] coined the term "'''[[extimacy]]'''" to designate the [[nature]] of this [[alienation]], in which [[alterity]] inhabits the innermost core of the [[subject]].  
  
 
===Separation===
 
===Separation===
[[Lacan]] devotes the whole of chapter 16 of [[Seminar_XI|The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis]] (1964a) to a discussion of [[alienation]] and the related concept of [[separation]].
+
[[Lacan]] devotes the [[whole]] of chapter 16 of [[Seminar_XI|The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis]] (1964a) to a [[discussion]] of [[alienation]] and the related concept of '''[[separation]]'''.
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
Line 59: Line 61:
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
 +
</div>
  
 
[[Category:Philosophy]]
 
[[Category:Philosophy]]

Latest revision as of 14:02, 27 May 2019

French: [[aliénation]], German: Entfremdung

Sigmund Freud

The term "alienation" does not constitute part of Freud's theoretical vocabulary.

Jacques Lacan

References

In Lacan's work the term implies both psychiatric and philosophical references:

Psychiatry

French psychiatry in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of mental illness as aliénation mentale, and a common term in French for "madman" is aliéné.[1]

Philosophy

The term "alienation" is the usual translation for the German term Entfremdung which features in the philosophy of Hegel and Marx.

However, the Lacanian concept of alienation differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the Hegelian and Marxist tradition.[2]

Subject

For Lacan, alienation is not an accident that befalls the subject and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the subject.

The subject is fundamentally split, alienated from himself, and there is no escape from this division, no possibility of "wholeness" or synthesis.

Ego

Alienation is an inevitable consequence of the process by which the ego is constituted by identification with the counterpart:

"The initial synthesis of the ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated."[3]

In Rimbaud's words, "I is an other."[4]

Imaginary

Thus alienation belongs to the imaginary order:

"Alienation is constitutive of the imaginary order. Alienation is the imaginary as such."[5]

Psychosis

Although alienation is an essential characteristic of all subjectivity, psychosis represents a more extreme form of alienation.

"Extimacy"

Lacan coined the term "extimacy" to designate the nature of this alienation, in which alterity inhabits the innermost core of the subject.

Separation

Lacan devotes the whole of chapter 16 of The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (1964a) to a discussion of alienation and the related concept of separation.

See Also

References

  1. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966. p. 154
  2. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p. 215
  3. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p. 39
  4. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p. 23
  5. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p. 146