Difference between revisions of "Alienation"

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{{Topp}}alié[[nation]]]]'', [[German]]: ''[[Entfremdung{{Bottom}}
  
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==Sigmund Freud==
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The term "[[alienation]]" does not constitute part of [[Freud]]'s [[theory|theoretical]] [[:category:concepts|vocabulary]].
  
alienation (aliÈnation)                  The term 'alienation' does not constitute part
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==Jacques Lacan==
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===References===
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In [[Lacan]]'s [[Jacques Lacan:Bibliography|work]] the term implies both [[psychiatric]] and [[philosophical]] references:
  
of Freud's theoretical vocabulary. In Lacan's work the term implies both
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;Psychiatry
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[[French]] [[psychiatry]] in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of [[mental]] [[illness]] as ''[[alienation|aliénation mentale]]'', and a common term in [[French]] for "[[madness|madman]]" is ''[[alienation|aliéné]].''<ref>{{Ec}} p. 154</ref>
  
psychiatric and philosophical references:
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;Philosophy
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The term "[[alienation]]" is the usual [[translation]] for the [[German]] term ''[[alienation|Entfremdung]]'' which features in the '''[[philosophy]]''' of [[Hegel]] and [[Marx]].
  
  . Psychiatry        French psychiatry in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel)
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However, the [[Lacan]]ian [[concept]] of [[alienation]] differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the [[Hegel]]ian and [[Marx]]ist [[tradition]].<ref>{{S11}} p. 215</ref>
  
conceived of mental illness        as aliÈnation mentale, and a common term in
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===Subject===
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For [[Lacan]], [[alienation]] is not an accident that befalls the '''[[subject]]''' and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the '''[[subject]]'''.
  
French for 'madman' is aliÈnÈ (a term which Lacan himself uses; Ec, 154).
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The [[subject]] is fundamentally '''[[split]]''', [[alienation|alienated]] from himself, and there is no escape from this [[division]], no possibility of "[[wholeness]]" or [[synthesis]].
  
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===Ego===
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[[Alienation]] is an inevitable consequence of the [[process]] by which the '''[[ego]]''' is constituted by '''[[identification]]''' with the [[counterpart]]:
  
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<blockquote>"The initial synthesis of the ''ego'' is essentially an ''alter ego'', it is alienated."<ref>{{S3}} p. 39</ref></blockquote>
  
  . Philosophy        The term 'alienation' is the usual translation for the German
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In Rimbaud's [[words]], "I is an [[other]]."<ref>{{E}} p. 23</ref>
  
  term Entfremdung which features in the philosophy of Hegel and Marx.
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===Imaginary===
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Thus [[alienation]] belongs to the '''[[imaginary]] [[order]]''':
  
However, the Lacanian concept of alienation differs greatly from the ways
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<blockquote>"Alienation is constitutive of [[the imaginary]] order. Alienation is [[The Imaginary|the imaginary]] as such."<ref>{{S3}} p. 146</ref></blockquote>
  
that the term is employed in the Hegelian and Marxist tradition (as Jacques-
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===Psychosis===
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Although [[alienation]] is an essential characteristic of all [[subjectivity]], '''[[psychosis]]''' represents a more extreme [[form]] of [[alienation]].
  
Alain Miller points out; Sll, 215). For Lacan, alienation is not an accident that
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==="Extimacy"===
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[[Lacan]] coined the term "'''[[extimacy]]'''" to designate the [[nature]] of this [[alienation]], in which [[alterity]] inhabits the innermost core of the [[subject]].  
  
befalls the subject and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive
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===Separation===
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[[Lacan]] devotes the [[whole]] of chapter 16 of [[Seminar_XI|The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis]] (1964a) to a [[discussion]] of [[alienation]] and the related concept of '''[[separation]]'''.
  
feature of the subject. The subject is fundamentally SPLIT, alienated from
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==See Also==
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{{See}}
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* [[Counterpart]]
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* [[Ego-ideal]]
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||
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* ''[[Extimacy]]''
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* [[Identification]]
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||
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* [[Imaginary]]
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* [[Mirror stage]]
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||
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* [[Philosophy]]
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* [[Psychosis]]
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||
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* [[Split]]
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* [[Subject]]
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{{Also}}
  
himself, and there is no escape from this division, no possibility of 'whole-
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==References==
 
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<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
ness' or synthesis.
 
 
 
      Alienation is an inevitable consequence of the process by which the ego is
 
 
 
constituted by identification with the counterpart: 'the initial synthesis of the
 
 
 
ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated' (S3, 39). In Rimbaud's words, 'I
 
 
 
is an other' (E, 23). Thus alienation belongs to the imaginary order: 'Alien-
 
 
 
ation is constitutive of the imaginary order. Alienation is the imaginary as
 
 
 
such' (S3, 146). Although alienation is            an essential characteristic of all
 
 
 
subjectivity, psychosis represents a more extreme form of alienation.
 
 
 
      Lacan coined the term EXTIMACY ÕO designate the nature of this alienation, in
 
 
 
which alterity inhabits the innermost core of the subject. Lacan devotes the
 
 
 
whole of chapter 16 of The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental
 
 
 
Concepts of Psychoanalysis (1964a) to        a discussion of alienation and the
 
 
 
related concept of separation.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
== References ==
 
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
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</div>
  
[[Category:Lacan]]
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[[Category:Philosophy]]
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[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
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[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
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[[Category:Imaginary]]
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[[Category:Dictionary]]
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[[Category:Concepts]]
 
[[Category:Terms]]
 
[[Category:Terms]]
[[Category:Concepts]]
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[[Category:New]]
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
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{{OK}}
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__NOTOC__

Latest revision as of 14:02, 27 May 2019

French: [[aliénation]], German: Entfremdung

Sigmund Freud

The term "alienation" does not constitute part of Freud's theoretical vocabulary.

Jacques Lacan

References

In Lacan's work the term implies both psychiatric and philosophical references:

Psychiatry

French psychiatry in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of mental illness as aliénation mentale, and a common term in French for "madman" is aliéné.[1]

Philosophy

The term "alienation" is the usual translation for the German term Entfremdung which features in the philosophy of Hegel and Marx.

However, the Lacanian concept of alienation differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the Hegelian and Marxist tradition.[2]

Subject

For Lacan, alienation is not an accident that befalls the subject and which can be transcended, but an essential constitutive feature of the subject.

The subject is fundamentally split, alienated from himself, and there is no escape from this division, no possibility of "wholeness" or synthesis.

Ego

Alienation is an inevitable consequence of the process by which the ego is constituted by identification with the counterpart:

"The initial synthesis of the ego is essentially an alter ego, it is alienated."[3]

In Rimbaud's words, "I is an other."[4]

Imaginary

Thus alienation belongs to the imaginary order:

"Alienation is constitutive of the imaginary order. Alienation is the imaginary as such."[5]

Psychosis

Although alienation is an essential characteristic of all subjectivity, psychosis represents a more extreme form of alienation.

"Extimacy"

Lacan coined the term "extimacy" to designate the nature of this alienation, in which alterity inhabits the innermost core of the subject.

Separation

Lacan devotes the whole of chapter 16 of The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (1964a) to a discussion of alienation and the related concept of separation.

See Also

References

  1. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966. p. 154
  2. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p. 215
  3. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p. 39
  4. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p. 23
  5. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p. 146