Difference between revisions of "Parapraxis"

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In [[psychoanalytic theory]], a [[bungled action]] such as a [[slip of the tongue]] whose goal is not achieved and which is replaced by another.
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In [[psychoanalytic theory]], a [[bungled action]] such as a [[slip of the tongue]] whose [[goal]] is not achieved and which is replaced by [[another]].
  
 
Like [[symptom]]s, [[parapraxes]] are [[interpret]]ed by [[Freud]] as [[compromise formation]]s resulting from a [[conflict]] between [[conscious]] [[intentions]] and [[repressed]] [[feeling]]s or impulses.
 
Like [[symptom]]s, [[parapraxes]] are [[interpret]]ed by [[Freud]] as [[compromise formation]]s resulting from a [[conflict]] between [[conscious]] [[intentions]] and [[repressed]] [[feeling]]s or impulses.
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A [[parapraxis]] is an [[act]] that appears to be [[unintentional]] but can be [[understood]], through [[psychoanalytic]] exploration, to be perfectly motivated and [[unconscious]]ly determined.  
 
A [[parapraxis]] is an [[act]] that appears to be [[unintentional]] but can be [[understood]], through [[psychoanalytic]] exploration, to be perfectly motivated and [[unconscious]]ly determined.  
  
A brief and delimited [[disturbance]] that may be spontaneously explained as the result of chance or inattention, a [[parapraxis]] may be readily perceived by its initiator or by a third party to be a "mistake."
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A brief and delimited [[disturbance]] that may be spontaneously explained as the result of chance or inattention, a [[parapraxis]] may be readily perceived by its initiator or by a [[third]] party to be a "mistake."
  
[[Parapraxes]] include a wide range of events, including failures of [[memory]], slips of the tongue or pen, [[mistake]]s, and [[bungled]] or accidental acts.  
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[[Parapraxes]] include a wide range of events, including failures of [[memory]], slips of the tongue or pen, [[mistake]]s, and [[bungled]] or accidental [[acts]].  
  
A [[parapraxis]] cannot be explained by referring to the nature of the "[[slip]]" itself, but [[psychoanalytic]] hypotheses make it possible for it to be described simultaneously as a [[mistake]] and not a [[mistake]], depending on one's point of view.
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A [[parapraxis]] cannot be explained by referring to the [[nature]] of the "[[slip]]" itself, but [[psychoanalytic]] hypotheses make it possible for it to be described simultaneously as a [[mistake]] and not a [[mistake]], depending on one's point of view.
  
 
[[Parapraxes]] interested [[Freud]] as early as 1890.  
 
[[Parapraxes]] interested [[Freud]] as early as 1890.  
  
In letters to [[Wilhelm Fliess]], he created a virtual collection of examples communicated to him by correspondents.  
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In letters to [[Wilhelm Fliess]], he created a [[virtual]] collection of examples communicated to him by correspondents.  
  
 
[[Parapraxes]] represented, in fact, an important demonstration of [[disturbance]]s created by the [[unconscious]].  
 
[[Parapraxes]] represented, in fact, an important demonstration of [[disturbance]]s created by the [[unconscious]].  
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As opposed to [[dream]]s, [[parapraxes]] tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience an easy way to grasp [[psychoanalysis]].  
 
As opposed to [[dream]]s, [[parapraxes]] tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience an easy way to grasp [[psychoanalysis]].  
  
Furthermore, [[parapraxes]] constitute one of the pillars of the [[psychopathology]] of everyday [[life]], which [[Freud]] considered necessary to understand [[mental]] [[pathology]] in a broader context.
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Furthermore, [[parapraxes]] constitute one of the pillars of the [[psychopathology]] of everyday [[life]], which [[Freud]] considered necessary to [[understand]] [[mental]] [[pathology]] in a broader context.
  
 
[[Freud]] discusses [[parapraxes]] in two of his major works: [[Psychopathology of Everyday Life]] (1901) and [[Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis]] (1915-17).
 
[[Freud]] discusses [[parapraxes]] in two of his major works: [[Psychopathology of Everyday Life]] (1901) and [[Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis]] (1915-17).
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Beyond the anecdotal nature of many of the examples in these two works, [[parapraxes]] clearly raise an issue fundamental for [[psychoanalytic]] [[thought]]—namely, the link between [[psychic]] [[determinism]] and the [[unconscious]].  
 
Beyond the anecdotal nature of many of the examples in these two works, [[parapraxes]] clearly raise an issue fundamental for [[psychoanalytic]] [[thought]]—namely, the link between [[psychic]] [[determinism]] and the [[unconscious]].  
  
[[Freud]] was led to clarify his position toward the notion of "chance" as differentiated from [[superstition]]:  
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[[Freud]] was led to clarify his [[position]] toward the [[notion]] of "chance" as differentiated from [[superstition]]:  
  
<blockquote>"I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden thing about the future shape of reality; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental activity does on the other hand disclose something hidden, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to external reality]. I believe in external (real) chance, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) accidental events."<ref>Freud, 1901b, p328</ref></blockquote>
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<blockquote>"I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden [[thing]] [[about]] the [[future]] shape of [[reality]]; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental [[activity]] does on the [[other]] hand disclose something hidden, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to [[external]] reality]. I believe in external ([[real]]) chance, it is [[true]], but not in [[internal]] ([[psychical]]) accidental events."<ref>Freud, 1901b, p328</ref></blockquote>
  
  
The link between [[parapraxes]] and [[psychopathology]], moreover, is established, according to [[Freud]], uniquely through the fact that, in the case of [[chance]] [[event]]s in a real world, "slips" involve the most insignificant [[psychic]] [[event]]s.  
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The link between [[parapraxes]] and [[psychopathology]], moreover, is established, according to [[Freud]], uniquely through the fact that, in the [[case]] of [[chance]] [[event]]s in a real [[world]], "slips" involve the most insignificant [[psychic]] [[event]]s.  
  
 
By contrast, [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s are related to the most important [[psychic]] functions from both [[individual]] and [[social]] perspectives.  
 
By contrast, [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s are related to the most important [[psychic]] functions from both [[individual]] and [[social]] perspectives.  
  
In both instances, however, the same processes enable such [[symptom]]s to be understood, that is, as compromise [[formation]]s located between [[desire]] and [[defense]], between a [[subject]]'s [[conscious]] [[intention]] and [[repression]].
+
In both instances, however, the same [[processes]] enable such [[symptom]]s to be understood, that is, as compromise [[formation]]s located between [[desire]] and [[defense]], between a [[subject]]'s [[conscious]] [[intention]] and [[repression]].
  
  
 
==Lapsus==
 
==Lapsus==
Fault made by inadvertency consisting in substituting a word for that which one wanted to say or write.  
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Fault made by inadvertency consisting in substituting a [[word]] for that which one wanted to say or write.  
  
  
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==References==
 
==References==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
* Freud, Sigmund. (1901b). The psychopathology of everyday life. SE,6.
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* [[Freud, Sigmund]]. (1901b). The psychopathology of everyday life. SE,6.
* ——. (1916-17a[1915-17]). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. SE, 15-16.
+
* ——. (1916-17a[1915-17]). Introductory lectures on [[psycho]]-[[analysis]]. SE, 15-16.
 
* Topique. (1997).
 
* Topique. (1997).
  

Latest revision as of 16:41, 20 May 2019

In psychoanalytic theory, a bungled action such as a slip of the tongue whose goal is not achieved and which is replaced by another.

Like symptoms, parapraxes are interpreted by Freud as compromise formations resulting from a conflict between conscious intentions and repressed feelings or impulses.

A parapraxis is an act that appears to be unintentional but can be understood, through psychoanalytic exploration, to be perfectly motivated and unconsciously determined.

A brief and delimited disturbance that may be spontaneously explained as the result of chance or inattention, a parapraxis may be readily perceived by its initiator or by a third party to be a "mistake."

Parapraxes include a wide range of events, including failures of memory, slips of the tongue or pen, mistakes, and bungled or accidental acts.

A parapraxis cannot be explained by referring to the nature of the "slip" itself, but psychoanalytic hypotheses make it possible for it to be described simultaneously as a mistake and not a mistake, depending on one's point of view.

Parapraxes interested Freud as early as 1890.

In letters to Wilhelm Fliess, he created a virtual collection of examples communicated to him by correspondents.

Parapraxes represented, in fact, an important demonstration of disturbances created by the unconscious.

As opposed to dreams, parapraxes tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience an easy way to grasp psychoanalysis.

Furthermore, parapraxes constitute one of the pillars of the psychopathology of everyday life, which Freud considered necessary to understand mental pathology in a broader context.

Freud discusses parapraxes in two of his major works: Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901) and Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1915-17).

Beyond the anecdotal nature of many of the examples in these two works, parapraxes clearly raise an issue fundamental for psychoanalytic thought—namely, the link between psychic determinism and the unconscious.

Freud was led to clarify his position toward the notion of "chance" as differentiated from superstition:

"I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden thing about the future shape of reality; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental activity does on the other hand disclose something hidden, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to external reality]. I believe in external (real) chance, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) accidental events."[1]


The link between parapraxes and psychopathology, moreover, is established, according to Freud, uniquely through the fact that, in the case of chance events in a real world, "slips" involve the most insignificant psychic events.

By contrast, neurotic symptoms are related to the most important psychic functions from both individual and social perspectives.

In both instances, however, the same processes enable such symptoms to be understood, that is, as compromise formations located between desire and defense, between a subject's conscious intention and repression.


Lapsus

Fault made by inadvertency consisting in substituting a word for that which one wanted to say or write.


See Also

References

  1. Freud, 1901b, p328
  • Freud, Sigmund. (1901b). The psychopathology of everyday life. SE,6.
  • ——. (1916-17a[1915-17]). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. SE, 15-16.
  • Topique. (1997).
Index
See also Slips of the tongue