Position de l'inconscient

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1960-1964 (21 pp.)-POSITION DE L'INCONSCIENT (THE POSITION OF THE UNCONSCIOUS) 1966 In 1960, II. Ey gathered psychiatrists, philosophers, and psychoanalysts from the two groups for the Colloquium on the unconscious at Bonneval. This was an explosive situation. Two students of Lacan gave a widely noticed talk on "L'lnconscient: une etude psychanalytique" (The Unconscious: A Psycho�analytic Study). They delivered it in the context of the workshop on "Langage et inconscient" (Language and the Unconscious) and it was going to be pub�lished in Les Temps modernes. Lacan at first praised it in his seminar, but not without some uneasiness because he had recognized the theoretical diver�gence that was widening between Laplanche and himself. In 1964 H. Ey requested a text from each of them, giving them the freedom to revise their old talk, and he asked Lacan to write a digest of his numerous comments during the Colloquium; this was Positioll de [' illconsciellt published in 1966 both in Ecrits and in L'[llcollScient (Desclee de Brouwer publisher). Keeping the 1963 split in mind, this volume sheds light on the divergence, and espe�cially enlightening is the postscript in which Laplanche specifies and defends his sacrilegious statement: "The unconscious, more than a language, is the condition of language" (p. 96). 0. POl/bell;(,{/(;oT! is a condensation of pOI/belle. trash, and publication. The Worn of Jacques Lacan 1" Lacan reasserted his basic thesis: "The unconscious is a concept forged on the trace of that which works to constitute the subject." Moreover. "the sub�ject is not the cause of himself, he carries in him the worm of the cause which splits [refend] him," and this cause is language, or rather the primordial sig�nifier that divides him and "represents him for another signifier." "Without this signifier there would be no subject in the real." Such are the effects of language that give birth to the subject in an originary alienation. Presented here in a denser and more pedagogical way, these were already the themes of L'lnstance de la lettre (35), L'ldentification (50), and La Mltaphore du sujet (48), all texts that should be read together. In 1969, questioned by Anika Rimet-Lemaire, he responded clearly to Laplanche, "It is language that is the condition of the unconscious" (74). If there are effects of language, there are also effect of speech, in which the subject alienates himself in his demand made to the Other and in his demand of the Other. Lacan resumed all the themes on the Other that he had developed since Fonction et Champ (24): the terms of the pact; the exchange of signi�fiers; the metaphors of the Father; the ideals that govern what one must do as a man or as a woman; the subject to be located at the level of the enunciation of all discourse, etc. However, as was the case in Seminaire XI (55), contemporaneous with this writing, the difficulty was linking the theory of the signifier with the current research on sexuality, oriented towards the drive and the objet a. Lacan re�peated that the libido as "lamella" is an "organ"-"the organ of the incor�poreal in the sexed being," because "the speaking subject has the privilege of revealing the deadly meaning of this organ and, thereby, its relation to sexuality." Man is born from a division from "the membranes, the daughters of the egg": "Breaking the egg, you make man, but also the hommelette," which man must lose. This place is then occupied by the various objets a, the upholders of the Desire of/to the Other. It is difficult to say, then, if there is a passage from the drive to desire by means of the fantasy. In any case, only the object -, the "cause" of the castration complex and thus of the as�sumption of the subject, allows the subject to construct himself as living be�yond the "impossible Real" that threatens him. "Psychoanalysis is responsible for the presence of the unconscious in the field of science": the Master's teaching has been anathematized because he stressed this requirement. He cheerfully returned the anathema: instead of "psychological ideals," indeed ideologies, psychoanalysis "should have fur�thered its ethics and learned about theology, according to a path that Freud showed us to be unavoidable." Even Betty Friedan's book on the vogue of a "feminine mystic" in the United States, or the distrust of Eastern countries for psychoanalysis were used to attack the role of the "other" psychoanalysts in society.