Difference between revisions of "Psychosis"

From No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis
Jump to: navigation, search
 
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
[[Psychosis]] (psychose)               
 +
The term [[Psychosis]]    arose in psychiatry in the
  
 +
nineteenth century as a way of designating mental illness in general. During
  
 +
Freud's life, a basic distinction between [[Psychosis]] and NEUROSIs came to be
 +
 +
generally accepted, according to which [[Psychosis]] designated extreme forms of
 +
 +
mental illness and neurosis denoted less serious disorders. This basic distinc-
 +
 +
tion between neurosis and [[Psychosis]] was taken up and developed by Freud
 +
 +
himself in several papers (e.g. Freud, 1924b and 1924e).
 +
 +
      Lacan's interest in [[Psychosis]] predates his interest in psychoanalysis. Indeed
 +
 +
  it was his doctoral research, which concerned a psychotic [[Woman]] whom Lacan
 +
 +
calls 'AimÈe', that first led Lacan to psychoanalytic theory (see Lacan, 1932).
 +
 +
  It has often been remarked that Lacan's debt to this patient is reminiscent of
 +
 +
  Freud's debt to his first neurotic patients (who were also female). In other
 +
 +
words, whereas Freud's first approach to the unconscious is by way of
 +
 +
neurosis, Lacan's first approach is via [[Psychosis]]. It has also been common
 +
 +
  to compare Lacan's tortured and at times almost incomprehensible style of
 +
 +
writing and speaking to the discourse of psychotic patients. Whatever one
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
are stabilized in the delusional metaphor' (E, 217). Another way of describing
 +
 +
this is as 'a relationship between the subject and the signifier in its most formal
 +
 +
dimension, in its dimension as a pure signifier' (S3, 250). This relationship of
 +
 +
the subject to the signifier in its purely formal aspect constitutes 'the nucleus of
 +
 +
[[Psychosis]]' (S3, 250). 'If the neurotic inhabits language, the psychotic is
 +
 +
inhabited, possessed, by language' (S3, 250).
 +
 +
      Of all the various forms of [[Psychosis]], it iS [[Paranoia]] that most interests
 +
 +
Lacan, while schizophrenia and manic-depressive [[Psychosis]] are rarely dis-
 +
 +
cussed (see S3, 3-4). Lacan follows Freud in maintaining a structural distinc-
 +
 +
tion between paranoia and schizophrenia.
 +
 +
 +
== def ==
 
A mental condition whereby the patient completely loses touch with reality. Freud originally distinguished between neurosis and psychosis in the following way: “in neurosis the ego suppresses part of the id out of allegiance to reality, whereas in psychosis it lets itself be carried away by the id and detached from a part of reality” (5.202).
 
A mental condition whereby the patient completely loses touch with reality. Freud originally distinguished between neurosis and psychosis in the following way: “in neurosis the ego suppresses part of the id out of allegiance to reality, whereas in psychosis it lets itself be carried away by the id and detached from a part of reality” (5.202).
  

Revision as of 18:18, 27 April 2006

Psychosis (psychose) The term Psychosis arose in psychiatry in the

nineteenth century as a way of designating mental illness in general. During

Freud's life, a basic distinction between Psychosis and NEUROSIs came to be

generally accepted, according to which Psychosis designated extreme forms of

mental illness and neurosis denoted less serious disorders. This basic distinc-

tion between neurosis and Psychosis was taken up and developed by Freud

himself in several papers (e.g. Freud, 1924b and 1924e).

      Lacan's interest in Psychosis predates his interest in psychoanalysis. Indeed
  it was his doctoral research, which concerned a psychotic Woman whom Lacan

calls 'AimÈe', that first led Lacan to psychoanalytic theory (see Lacan, 1932).

  It has often been remarked that Lacan's debt to this patient is reminiscent of
  Freud's debt to his first neurotic patients (who were also female). In other

words, whereas Freud's first approach to the unconscious is by way of

neurosis, Lacan's first approach is via Psychosis. It has also been common

  to compare Lacan's tortured and at times almost incomprehensible style of

writing and speaking to the discourse of psychotic patients. Whatever one



are stabilized in the delusional metaphor' (E, 217). Another way of describing

this is as 'a relationship between the subject and the signifier in its most formal

dimension, in its dimension as a pure signifier' (S3, 250). This relationship of

the subject to the signifier in its purely formal aspect constitutes 'the nucleus of

Psychosis' (S3, 250). 'If the neurotic inhabits language, the psychotic is

inhabited, possessed, by language' (S3, 250).

     Of all the various forms of Psychosis, it iS Paranoia that most interests

Lacan, while schizophrenia and manic-depressive Psychosis are rarely dis-

cussed (see S3, 3-4). Lacan follows Freud in maintaining a structural distinc-

tion between paranoia and schizophrenia.


def

A mental condition whereby the patient completely loses touch with reality. Freud originally distinguished between neurosis and psychosis in the following way: “in neurosis the ego suppresses part of the id out of allegiance to reality, whereas in psychosis it lets itself be carried away by the id and detached from a part of reality” (5.202).


References