Difference between revisions of "Schema L"

From No Subject - Encyclopedia of Psychoanalysis
Jump to: navigation, search
 
Line 1: Line 1:
  
 +
[[Schema L]] <ref>[[French]]: ''[[schéma L]]''</ref> 
 +
     
 +
The various '[[schemata]]' that begin to appear in [[Lacan]]'s work in the 1950s are all attempts to [[formalise]] by means of diagrams certain aspects of [[psychoanalytic theory]].
  
 +
The [[schemata]] all consist of a number of points connected by a number of vectors.
  
schema L (schÈma L)                  The various 'schemata' that begin to appear in
+
Each point in a [[schema]] is designated by one of the [[symbol]]s of [[Lacan]]ian [[algebra]], while the vectors how the structural relations between these [[symbol]]s.
  
Lacan's work in the 1950s are all attempts to formalise by means of diagrams
+
The [[schemata]] can be seen as [[Lacan]]'s first incursion into the field of [[topology]].
  
certain aspects of psychoanalytic theory. The schemata all consist of a number
+
The first [[schema]] to appear in [[Lacan]]'s work is also the [[schema]] which he makes the most use of.  
  
of points connected by        a number of vectors. Each point in          a schema is
+
This [[schema]] is designated 'L' because it resembles the upper-case Greek lambda.<ref>{{Ec}} p.53</ref>
  
designated by one of the symbols of Lacanian ALGEBRA, while the vectors
+
Lacan first introduces the [[schema]] in 1955, and it occupies a central place in his work for the next few years.<ref>{{S2}} p.243</ref>
  
 +
Two years later, [[Lacan]] replaces this version of the [[schema]] with a newer, "simplified form."<ref>{{Ec}} p.548; {{E}} p.193</ref>
  
 +
Although [[schema L]] allows many possible readings, the main point of the [[schema]] is to demonstrate that the [[symbolic]] relation (between the [[Other]] and the [[subject]]) is always blocked to a certain extent by the [[Imaginary]] axis (between the [[ego]] and the [[specular image]]).
  
 +
Because it has to pass through the [[imaginary]] "wall of language', the [[discourse]] of the [[Other]] reaches the [[subject]] in an interrupted and inverted form. (see [[communication]])
  
 +
The [[schema]] thus illustrates the opposition between the [[imaginary]] and the [[symbolic]] which is fundamental to [[Lacan]]'s conception of [[psychoanalysis]].
  
 +
This is of practical importance in the [[treatment]], since the [[analyst]] must usually intervene in the [[symbolic]] [[order]] rather than in the [[imaginary]].
  
show the structural relations between these symbols. The schemata can be seen
+
Thus the [[schema]] also shows the position of the analyst in the [[treatment]]:
  
  as Lacan's first incursion into the field of TOPOI OGY.
+
If one wants to position the [[analyst]] within this [[schema]] of the [[subject]]'s [[speech]], one can say that he is somewhere in A.  
  
      The first schema to appear in Lacan's work is also the schema which he
+
At least he should be.
  
makes the most use of. This schema is designated 'L' because it resembles the
+
If he enters into the coupling of the [[resistance]], which is just what he is taught not to do, then he speaks from a' and he will see himself in the [[subject]]. <ref>{{S3}} 161-2</ref>
  
upper-case Greek lambda (see Figure 14, taken from Ec, 53). Lacan first
+
By positioning different elements in the four empty loci of the [[schema]], [[schema L]] can be used to analyse various sets of relations encountered in [[psychoanalytic treatmen]]t.  
  
introduces the schema in 1955 (S2, 243), and it occupies a central place in
+
For example [[Lacan]] uses it to analyse the relations between [[Dora]] and the other people in her story, <ref>{{S4}} p.142-3</ref> and also to analyse the relations between the various people in the case of the young [[homosexual]] [[Woman]].<ref>{{S4}} p.124-33</ref>.
  
his work for the next few years.
+
In addition to providing a map of [[intersubjective]] relations, [[schema L]] also represents [[intrasubjective]] [[structure]].
  
      Two years later, Lacan replaces this version of the schema with a newer,
+
Thus it illustrates the [[decentering]] of the [[subject]], since the [[subject]] is not to be located only at the point marked S, but over the whole [[schema]].
  
"simplified form' (Figure 15, taken from Ec, 548; see E, 193).
+
"He is stretched over the four corners of the [[schema]]."<ref>{{E}} p.194</ref>
  
      Although schema L allows many possible readings, the main point of the
+
In addition to [[schema]] L there are several other [[schemata]] that appear in [[Lacan]]'s work <ref>schema R    - see E, 197; [[schema]] I  - see E, 212; the two [[schemata]]
 +
of Sade    - see Ec, 774 and Ec, 778</ref>.
  
schema is to demonstrate that the [[Symbolic]] relation (between the Other and the
+
All of these [[schemata]] are transformations of the basic [[quaternary]] of [[schema]] L, on which they are based.
  
subject) is always blocked to a certain extent by the [[Imaginary]] axis (between
+
However, unlike [[schema L]], which serves as a constant point of reference for [[Lacan]] in the period 1954-7, each of these [[schemata]] only appears once in [[Lacan]]'s work.  
 
 
the ego and the SPECULAR IMAGE). Because it has to pass through the [[Imaginary]]
 
 
 
  "wall of language', the discourse of the Other reaches the subject in                    an
 
 
 
interrupted and inverted form (see COMMUNICATION). The schema thus illus-
 
 
 
trates the opposition between the [[Imaginary]] and the [[Symbolic]] which is                so
 
 
 
fundamental to Lacan's conception of psychoanalysis. This is of practical
 
 
 
importance in the treatment, since the analyst must usually intervene in the
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
[[Symbolic]] register rather than in the [[Imaginary]]. Thus the schema also shows the
 
 
 
position of the analyst in the treatment:
 
 
 
    If one wants to position the analyst within this schema of the subject's
 
 
 
    speech, one can say that he is somewhere in A. At least he should be. If
 
 
 
    he enters into the coupling of the resistance, which is just what he is taught
 
 
 
    not to do, then he speaks from a' and he will see himself in the subject.
 
 
 
                                                                                                          (S3, 161-2)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
    By positioning different elements in the four empty loci of the schema,
 
 
 
schema L can be used to analyse various sets of relations encountered in
 
 
 
psychoanalytic treatment. For example Lacan uses it to analyse the relations
 
 
 
between Dora and the other people in her story (S4, 142-3; see Freud, 1905e),
 
 
 
and also to analyse the relations between the various people in the case of the
 
 
 
young homosexual [[Woman]] (S4, 124-33: see Freud, 1920a).
 
 
 
    In addition to providing a map of intersubjective relations, schema L also
 
 
 
represents intrasubjective structure (insofar as the one can be distinguished
 
 
 
from the other). Thus it illustrates the decentering of the subject, since the
 
 
 
subject is not to be located only at the point marked S, but over the whole
 
 
 
schema; 'he is stretched over the four corners of the schema' (E, 194).
 
 
 
    In addition to schema L there are several other schemata that appear in
 
 
 
Lacan's work (schema R    - see E, 197; schema I  - see E, 212; the two schemata
 
 
 
of Sade    - see Ec, 774 and Ec, 778). All of these schemata are transformations
 
 
 
of the basic quaternary of schema L, on which they are based. However, unlike
 
 
 
schema L, which serves as a constant point of reference for Lacan in the period
 
 
 
1954-7, each of these schemata only appears once in Lacan's work. By the
 
 
 
time the last of these schemata (the schemata of Sade) appear, in 1962, the
 
 
 
schemata have already ceased to play an important part in Lacan's discourse,
 
 
 
although it can be argued that they lay the groundwork for Lacan's more
 
 
 
rigorous topological work in the 1970s.
 
  
 +
By the time the last of these [[schemata]] (the [[schemata]] of [[Sade]]) appear, in 1962, the [[schemata]] have already ceased to play an important part in [[Lacan]]'s [[discourse]], although it can be argued that they lay the groundwork for [[Lacan]]'s more rigorous [[topological]] work in the 1970s.
  
 +
==See Also==
  
  
Line 149: Line 59:
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
  
[[Category:Lacan]]
+
[[Category:Jacques [[Lacan]]]]
 
[[Category:Terms]]
 
[[Category:Terms]]
 +
[[Category:Dictionary]]
 
[[Category:Concepts]]
 
[[Category:Concepts]]
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 +
[[Category:New]]
 +
[[Category:Help]]

Revision as of 09:55, 26 June 2006

Schema L [1]

The various 'schemata' that begin to appear in Lacan's work in the 1950s are all attempts to formalise by means of diagrams certain aspects of psychoanalytic theory.

The schemata all consist of a number of points connected by a number of vectors.

Each point in a schema is designated by one of the symbols of Lacanian algebra, while the vectors how the structural relations between these symbols.

The schemata can be seen as Lacan's first incursion into the field of topology.

The first schema to appear in Lacan's work is also the schema which he makes the most use of.

This schema is designated 'L' because it resembles the upper-case Greek lambda.[2]

Lacan first introduces the schema in 1955, and it occupies a central place in his work for the next few years.[3]

Two years later, Lacan replaces this version of the schema with a newer, "simplified form."[4]

Although schema L allows many possible readings, the main point of the schema is to demonstrate that the symbolic relation (between the Other and the subject) is always blocked to a certain extent by the Imaginary axis (between the ego and the specular image).

Because it has to pass through the imaginary "wall of language', the discourse of the Other reaches the subject in an interrupted and inverted form. (see communication)

The schema thus illustrates the opposition between the imaginary and the symbolic which is fundamental to Lacan's conception of psychoanalysis.

This is of practical importance in the treatment, since the analyst must usually intervene in the symbolic order rather than in the imaginary.

Thus the schema also shows the position of the analyst in the treatment:

If one wants to position the analyst within this schema of the subject's speech, one can say that he is somewhere in A.

At least he should be.

If he enters into the coupling of the resistance, which is just what he is taught not to do, then he speaks from a' and he will see himself in the subject. [5]

By positioning different elements in the four empty loci of the schema, schema L can be used to analyse various sets of relations encountered in psychoanalytic treatment.

For example Lacan uses it to analyse the relations between Dora and the other people in her story, [6] and also to analyse the relations between the various people in the case of the young homosexual Woman.[7].

In addition to providing a map of intersubjective relations, schema L also represents intrasubjective structure.

Thus it illustrates the decentering of the subject, since the subject is not to be located only at the point marked S, but over the whole schema.

"He is stretched over the four corners of the schema."[8]

In addition to schema L there are several other schemata that appear in Lacan's work [9].

All of these schemata are transformations of the basic quaternary of schema L, on which they are based.

However, unlike schema L, which serves as a constant point of reference for Lacan in the period 1954-7, each of these schemata only appears once in Lacan's work.

By the time the last of these schemata (the schemata of Sade) appear, in 1962, the schemata have already ceased to play an important part in Lacan's discourse, although it can be argued that they lay the groundwork for Lacan's more rigorous topological work in the 1970s.

See Also

References

  1. French: schéma L
  2. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966. p.53
  3. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book II. The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis, 1954-55. Trans. Sylvana Tomaselli. New York: Nortion; Cambridge: Cambridge Unviersity Press, 1988. p.243
  4. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966. p.548; Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p.193
  5. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. 161-2
  6. Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre IV. La relation d'objet, 19566-57. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p.142-3
  7. Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre IV. La relation d'objet, 19566-57. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p.124-33
  8. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p.194
  9. schema R - see E, 197; schema I - see E, 212; the two schemata of Sade - see Ec, 774 and Ec, 778

[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]