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The term '[[{{Top}}sublimate|sublimation]]' (Fr. ''sublimation'') is one of the most familiar terms in the vocabulary of [[psychoanalysis]].{{Bottom}}
==Sublimation and ===Sigmund Freud=====In [[Sigmund Freud]] never developed 's [[work]], [[sublimation]] is a coherent theory [[process]] in which the [[libido]] is channelled into apparently non-[[sexual]] activities such as artistic creation and [[intellectual]] work. [[Sublimation]] thus functions as a socially acceptable escape valve for [[excess]] sexual [[energy]] which would otherwise have to be [[discharged]] in socially unacceptable forms ([[perverse]] [[behavior]]) or in [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s. The [[logical]] conclusion of such a view is that [[complete]] [[sublimation]] would mean the end of all [[perversion]] and all [[neurosis]]. However, many points remain unclear in [[Freud]]'s account) of [[sublimation]].
=====Jacques Lacan=====[[SublimationLacan]]s takes up the [[concept]] of [[sublimation]] is a term widely used in his [[psychoanalytic theoryseminar]] to describe the of 1959-60. He follows [[processFreud]] in which emphasizing the fact that the element of [[libidosocial]] [[sexuality|sexualrecognition]] is central to the concept, since it is only insofar as the [[drive]] (psychic or erotic energy) s are diverted towards this [[dimension]] of shared social values that they can be said to be sublimated.<ref>{{S7}} p. 144</ref> It is channelled, converted, transformed into an apparently non-sexual activity, such as this dimension of shared social values which allows [[Lacan]] to tie in the concept of [[art|artistic creationsublimation]] and intellectual work, or redirected, diverted toward an apparently non-sexual aim or a socially valued with his [[objectdiscussion]], such as of [[art|artistic creationethics]] and intellectual work, into creative and intellectual activity, into "socially useful" achievements.<ref>Freud 1933{{S7}} p. 144</ref>
=====Differences - Freud and Lacan=====However, [[SublimationLacan]] is a type 's account of [[coping|coping mechanismsublimation]] or also differs from [[defense mechanismFreud]], which functions as 's on a socially acceptable escape valve for excess sexual or erotic energy which would otherwise have to be discharged in socially unacceptable forms (perverse behaviour) or in neurotic symptoms. Erotic energy is only allowed limited expression due to [[Psychological repression|repressionnumber]]of points.
The logical conclusion =====Perversion=====[[Freud]]'s account implies that [[perversion|perverse sexuality]] as a [[form]] of such a view direct [[satisfaction]] of the [[drive]] is possible, and that complete [[sublimation would mean the end of all perversion and all neurosis. ]] is only necessary because this direct form in prohibited by [[Civilizationsociety]] has been able to place "social aims higher than the sexual ones."<ref>Introductory Lectures 16.345</ref>
===Sublimation and Art===This usage appears to be influenced by [[Lacan]] however rejects the aesthetics cocnept of the sublime.In his study a zero degree of Leonardo da Vincisatisfaction, Freud uses 'sublimation' in this sense to describe the transformation of theyoung Leonardo's sexual curiosity into arguing that [[perversion]] is not simply a spirit brute [[natural]] means of intellectual inquiry.<ref>1910a</ref>Whilst this produced great works of art, discharging the sublimation of [[libido]] into , but a general urge highly [[structure]]d relation to know meant that a small quota of Leonardo'the [[drive]]s sexual ennergy was directe dtowards sexual aimswhich are already, and resulted in a stunted adult sexuality.Elsewhere Frud suggests tht a mature woman's capacity to pursue an intellectual profession may be a sublimated expression of her childhood desire to acquire a penisthemselves, [[linguistic]] rather than [[biological]] forces.
==Sublimation and Whereas [[Freud]] believed that complete [[sublimation]] might be possible for some particularly refined or cultured [[people]], [[Lacan==Lacan's account of ]] argues that "complete sublimation differs from Freud's on a number of pointsis not possible for the [[individual]]."<ref>{{S7}} p.91</ref>
# Freud argues that =====Object=====In [[sublimationFreud]] is only necessary because this direct 's account, [[satisfactionsublimation]] involves the redirection of the [[drive]] to a different (although theoretically possiblenon-sexual) object. In [[Lacan]]'s account, however, what changes is not the object but its [[position]] in the [[prohibition|prohibitedstructure]] by of [[societyfantasy]].
# Freud's account implies that In [[perversion|perverseother]] [[sexualitywords]] as a form of direct , [[satisfactionsublimation]] of does not involve directing the [[drive]] is possible, and that to a different [[sublimationobject]] is only necessary because this direct form is [[prohibition|prohibited]] by , but rather changing the [[societynature]]. Lacan conceives of the [[perversionobject]] in a highly structured relation to which the [[drive]]s which are was alreadydirected, a "[[change]] of object in themselvesitself, " something which is made possible because the [[linguisticdrive]] rather than is "already deeply marked by the articulation of the [[biology|biological forcessignifier]]."<ref>see Zizek, 1991: 83-4){{S7}} p. 293</ref>
# Whereas Freud believed that complete The [[sublimationsublime]] might be possible for some particularly refined or quality of an [[cultureobject]]d people, Lacan argues that "complete sublimation is thus not possible for due to any intrinsic property of the individual."<ref>S7[[object]] itself, 91</ref>This is not to say that but simply an effect of the "free mobility of [[object]]'s position in the libido" (Introductory Lectures 16.346) is ever fully contained: "sublimation is never able to deal with more than a certain fraction [[symbolic]] [[structure]] of libido."<ref>Introductory Lectures 16[[fantasy]].346</ref>
# In Freud's account, =====Death Drive=====While [[sublimationLacan]] involves the redirection of the follows [[driveFreud]] to a different (non-sexual) [[object]]. In Lacan's account, in linking [[sublimation]] does not involve directing the drive to a different object, but rather changing the (position of the object in the structure of fantasy) nature of the object to which the drive was already directed, a "change of object in itself," something which is made possible because the drive is "already deeply marked by the articulation of the signifier."<ref>S7, 293</ref>The with [[sublimecreativity]] quality of an and [[objectart]] is thus not due to any intrinsic property of the object itself, but simply an effect of the object's position in the [[symbolic]] [[structure]] of [[fantasy]]. Sublimation relocates an object in the position of the [[thing]]. The Lacanian formula for sublimation is thus that "he complicates this by also linking it raises an object ... to with the [[dignity of the Thingdeath drive]]."<ref>S7, l 12{{S4}} p.431</ref>
# Lacan (following Freud) associates [[sublimation]] with [[creativity]] and [[art]], but also links it with the [[death drive]]Several reasons can be adduced to explain this.<ref>S4, 431</ref>## Firstly, the concept of the [[death drive]] is itself seen as a product of [[Freud]]'s own [[sublimation]]."<ref>{{S7, }} p.212</ref>## Secondly, the [[death drive ]] is not only a "[[destruction ]] drive," but also "a "will to create crate from zero."<ref>{{S7, }} p.212-133</ref> ## Thirdly, the [[sublime object]], through [[being ]] elevated to the [[dignity of the [[Thing]], exerts a [[power ]] of [[fascination ]] which leads ultimately to [[death]] and destruction. ==Sublimation and Ethics==In his 1959-60 [[seminar]], ''[[The Ethics of Psychoanalysis]],'' [[Jacques Lacan]] emphasizes the element of [[social recognition]] as central to the concept, and reflects upon the dimension of shared social values (towards which the sublimated drives are diverted) in his discussion of ethics.<ref>[[Jacques Lacan|Lacan, Jacques]]. [[The Ethics of Psychoanalysis]]. p. 107, 144</ref>  <ref>[[Seminar XI]] sublimation, 11, 165</ref>
==See Also==
* [[Sublime Object]]{{See}}
* [[Art]]
* [[libidoDeath drive]]||* [[Drive]]* [[driveEthics]]||* [[Fantasy]]* [[Libido]]||* [[death driveStructure]]* [[The Ethics of PsychoanalysisThing]]{{Also}}
== References ==
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[[Category:Freudian psychology]][[Category:Psychoanalysis]][[Category:Jacques Lacan]][[Category:Dictionary]][[Category:Concepts]][[Category:Culture]]
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