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Freudian Dictionary

On the basis of [certain] clinical evidence we can suppose that paranoiacs are endowed with a fixation at the stage of narcissism, and we can assert that the amount of re­gression characteristic of paranoia is indicated by the length of the step back trom sublimated homosexuality to narcissism.[1]

Many things obtrude themselves on consciousness in para­noia, which in normal and neurotic persons can only be demonstrated through psychoanalysis as existing in their un­conscious. (For example, the phantasies of the hysterical regarding sexual and cruel abuse which are made conscious by analysis often correspond in every detail with the com­plaints of persecuted paranoiacs. It is remarkable, but not altogether unexpected that we also meet the identical content as reality in the contrivances of perverts for the gratification of their desires.)[2]

Paranoia, Projection in

The most striking characteristic of symptom-formation in paranoia is the process which de­serves the name of projection. An internal perception is sup­pressed, and, instead, its content, after undergoing a certain degree of distortion, enters consciousness in the form of an external perception.[3]

Paranoia, Persecutory

In persecutory paranoia the suf­ferer takes a particular way of defending himself against an unduly strong homosexual attachment to a given person, with the result that the person he once loved most is changed into a persecutor and then becomes the object of aggressive and. often dangerous impulses on the part of the patient. Here we have grounds for interposing an intermediate phase in which the love is transformed into hate.[4]


Freud linked the defense mechanism of projection to paranoia (prior to the Schreber case).

The paranoiac defends against unacceptable impulses (such as hate and aggression) through projection.

  1. Template:ParDP Ch. 3
  2. Template:PEL Ch. 10
  3. {{ParDP} Ch. 3}
  4. Template:E&I Ch. 4