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A brief and delimited disturbance that may be spontaneously explained as the result of chance or inattention, a parapraxis may be readily perceived by its initiator or by a third party to be a "mistake."
A parapraxis cannot be explained by referring to the nature of the "slip" itself, but psychoanalytic hypotheses make it possible for it to be described simultaneously as a mistake and not a mistake, depending on one's point of view.
In letters to Wilhelm Fliess, he created a virtual collection of examples communicated to him by correspondents.
As opposed to dreams, parapraxes tend to require fewer biographical details while providing valuable evidence—indeed, often with comical effect—that offers a popular audience an easy way to grasp psychoanalysis.
Beyond the anecdotal nature of many of the examples in these two works, parapraxes clearly raise an issue fundamental for psychoanalytic thought—namely, the link between psychic determinism and the unconscious.
"I do not believe that an event in whose occurrence my mental life plays no part can teach me any hidden thing about the future shape of reality; but I believe that an unintentional manifestation of my own mental activity does on the other hand disclose something hidden, though again it is something that belongs only to my mental life [not to external reality]. I believe in external (real) chance, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) accidental events."
The link between parapraxes and psychopathology, moreover, is established, according to Freud, uniquely through the fact that, in the case of chance events in a real world, "slips" involve the most insignificant psychic events.
In both instances, however, the same processes enable such symptoms to be understood, that is, as compromise formations located between desire and defense, between a subject's conscious intention and repression.
Fault made by inadvertency consisting in substituting a word for that which one wanted to say or write.
- Freud, 1901b, p328
- Freud, Sigmund. (1901b). The psychopathology of everyday life. SE,6.
- ——. (1916-17a[1915-17]). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. SE, 15-16.
- Topique. (1997).
- Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, Book XX: Encore, On Feminine Sexuality, The Limits of Love and Knowledge 1972-1973. Trans. Bruce Fink. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. p. 37n
- See also Slips of the tongue