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{{Topp}}aliénationalié[[nation]]]]'', [[German]]: ''[[Entfremdung{{Bottom}}
==Sigmund Freud==
[[French]] [[psychiatry]] in the nineteenth century (e.g. Pinel) conceived of [[mental ]] [[illness ]] as ''[[alienation|aliénation mentale]]'', and a common term in [[French]] for "[[madness|madman]]" is ''[[alienation|aliéné]].''<ref>{{Ec}} p. 154</ref>
The term "[[alienation]]" is the usual [[translation ]] for the [[German]] term ''[[alienation|Entfremdung]]'' which features in the '''[[philosophy]]''' of [[Hegel]] and [[Marx]].
However, the [[Lacan]]ian [[concept ]] of [[alienation]] differs greatly from the ways that the term is employed in the [[Hegel]]ian and [[Marx]]ist [[tradition]].<ref>{{S11}} p. 215</ref>
[[Alienation]] is an inevitable consequence of the [[process ]] by which the '''[[ego]]''' is constituted by '''[[identification]]''' with the [[counterpart]]:
<blockquote>"The initial synthesis of the ''ego'' is essentially an ''alter ego'', it is alienated."<ref>{{S3}} p. 39</ref></blockquote>
In Rimbaud's [[words]], "I is an [[other]]."<ref>{{E}} p. 23</ref>
Thus [[alienation]] belongs to the '''[[imaginary]] [[order]]''':
<blockquote>"Alienation is constitutive of [[the imaginary ]] order. Alienation is [[The Imaginary|the imaginary ]] as such."<ref>{{S3}} p. 146</ref></blockquote>
Although [[alienation]] is an essential characteristic of all [[subjectivity]], '''[[psychosis]]''' represents a more extreme [[form ]] of [[alienation]].
[[Lacan]] coined the term "'''[[extimacy]]'''" to designate the [[nature ]] of this [[alienation]], in which [[alterity]] inhabits the innermost core of the [[subject]].
[[Lacan]] devotes the [[whole ]] of chapter 16 of [[Seminar_XI|The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis]] (1964a) to a [[discussion ]] of [[alienation]] and the related concept of '''[[separation]]'''.
==See Also==
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