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Talk:Chance

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== Sigmund Freud ==Freud has often been accused of a crude determinism, since no slip or blunder, no matter how apparently insignificant, is ever ascribed to {{Top}}contingency|chance (''chance''). {{Bottom}}
Indeed, Freud wrote, 'I believe in external (real) chance, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) accidental events."<ref>==Sigmund Freud, 1901: 257</ref> ---==[[Sigmund Freud]] is has often been accused of a [[chance|crude determinism.[[Freud]] almost never ascribes accident events to chance.No , since no slip or blunder, no matter how apparently insignificant, is ever ascribed to [[chance]]. Indeed, [[Freud]] states: wrote, "I believe in external (real) chance, it is true, but not in internal (psychical) accidental events."<ref>{{F}} ''[[Works of Sigmund Freud|The Psychopathology of Everyday Life]]'', 1901: . [[SE]] VI. p. 257</ref>
==Jacques Lacan==
[[Lacan]] expresses the same [[belief]] in his own terms. : [[Chancechance]], in the sense of pure [[time|contingency]], only [[exists]] in the [[real]].  In the [[symbolic]] [[order]], there is no such thing as pure [[chance]]----
==''Automaton'' and ''Tyche''==In the seminar of 1964, [[Lacan]] uses [[Aristotle]]'s distinction between two kinds of [[chance ]] to illustrate this distinction between the [[real]] and the [[symbolic]].  In the second book of the ''Physics'', where the concept of causality (see [[causecausality]]) is discussed, [[Aristotle]] explores the role of [[chance ]] and [[chance|fortune ]] in [[causality]].
He distinguishes between two types of [[chance]]: * ''[[automaton]]'', which refers to chance events in the world at large, and * ''[[tyche]]'', which designates [[chance]] insofar as it affects agents who are capable of moral [[action]].---  [[Lacanethics|moral]] redefines [[automaton]] as "the network of signifiers", thus locating it in the [[symbolic order]].  The term thus comes to designate those phenomena which seem to be chance but which are in truth the insistence of the [[signifier]] in determining the [[subjectaction]].
==Symbolic==[[Lacan]] redefines ''[[automaton]]'' as "the network of signifiers", thus locating it in the [[symbolic order]]. The term thus comes to designate those phenomena which seem to be [[chance]] but which are in truth the [[repetition|insistence]] of the [[signifier]] in determining the [[subject]]. ''[[Automaton]] '' is not truly arbitrary: only the [[real]] is truly arbitrary, since "the real is beyond the ''automaton''."<ref>{{S11}} p.59</ref>
---==Real==The [[real]] is aligned with ''[[tyche]]'', which [[Lacan]] redefines as "the encounter with the real". ''[[Tyche]]'' thus refers to the incursion of the [[real]] into the [[symbolic]] [[order]]: unlike the ''[[automaton]]'', which is the [[structure]] of the [[symbolic order]] which determines the [[subject]], ''[[tyche]]'' is purely arbitrary, beyond the determinations of the [[symbolic]] [[order]].
The ==Trauma==It is a knock on the door that interrupts a [[realdream]] , and on a more painful level it is aligned with ''[[tychetrauma]]. The [[trauma]]'', which tic [[Lacanevent]] redefines as "is the encounter with the [[real"]], extrinsic to [[signification]].
[[Tyche]] thus refers to the incursion of the [[real]] into the [[symbolic]] [[order]]: unlike the ''[[automaton]]'', which is the [[structure]] of the [[symbolic]] order which determines the [[subject]], ''[[tyche]]'' is purely arbitrary, beyond the determinations of the [[symbolic]] [[order]].
It is a knock on the door that interrupts a [[dream]], and on a more painful level it is [[trauma]]. __NOTOC__
The [[trauma]]tic [[event]] is the encounter with the [[real]], extrinsic to [[signification]].
==Determinism==
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