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Sublimation

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{{Top}}sublimate|sublimation (sublimation) In Freud's work, sublimation is a process in which the libido is channelled into apparently non-sexual activities such as artistic creation and intellectual work. Sublimation thus functions as a socially acceptable escape valve for excess sexual energy which would otherwise have to be discharged in socially unacceptable forms (perverse behaviour) or in neurotic symptoms. The logical conclusion of such a view is that complete sublimation would mean the end of all perversion and all neurosis. However, many points remain unclear in Freud's account of sublimation.{{Bottom}}
=====Sigmund Freud=====
In [[Freud]]'s [[work]], [[sublimation]] is a [[process]] in which the [[libido]] is channelled into apparently non-[[sexual]] activities such as artistic creation and [[intellectual]] work. [[Sublimation]] thus functions as a socially acceptable escape valve for [[excess]] sexual [[energy]] which would otherwise have to be [[discharged]] in socially unacceptable forms ([[perverse]] [[behavior]]) or in [[neurotic]] [[symptom]]s. The [[logical]] conclusion of such a view is that [[complete]] [[sublimation]] would mean the end of all [[perversion]] and all [[neurosis]]. However, many points remain unclear in [[Freud]]'s account of [[sublimation]].
=====Jacques Lacan =====[[Lacan]]s takes up the [[concept ]] of [[sublimation ]] in his [[seminar ]] of 1959-60. He follows [[Freud ]] in emphasising emphasizing the fact that the element of [[social ]] [[recognition ]] is central to the concept, since it is only insofar as the drives [[drive]]s are diverted towards socially valued objects this [[dimension]] of shared social values that they can be said to be sublimated (.<ref>{{S7, 107)}} p. 144</ref> It is this dimension of shared social values which allows [[Lacan ]] to tie in the concept of [[sublimation ]] with his [[discussion ]] of [[ethics (see ]].<ref>{{S7, }} p. 144). However, Lacan's account of sublimation also differs from Freud's on a number of points.</ref>
1. =====Differences - Freudand Lacan=====However, [[Lacan]]'s account implies that perverse sexuality as a form of direct satisfaction of the drive is possible, and that [[sublimation is only necessary because this direct form is prohibited by society. Lacan however rejects the concept of ]] also differs from [[Freud]]'s on a zero degree [[number]] of satisfaction (see éiûek, 1991: 83-4), arguing that perversion not simply a brute natural means of discharging the libido, but a highly structured relation to the drives which are already, in themselves, linguistic rather than biological forcespoints.
2. Whereas =====Perversion=====[[Freud believed ]]'s account implies that complete sublimation might be [[perversion|perverse sexuality]] as a [[form]] of direct [[satisfaction]] of the [[drive]] is possible for some particularly refined or cultured people, Lacan argues and that 'complete [[sublimation ]] is not possible for the individual' (S7, 91)only necessary because this direct form in prohibited by [[society]].
3. In Freud's account, sublimation involves [[Lacan]] however rejects the redirection cocnept of the drive to a different (non-sexual) object. In Lacan's accountzero degree of satisfaction, however, what changes arguing that [[perversion]] is not the object but its position in the structure simply a brute [[natural]] means of fantasy. In other words, sublimation does not involve directing discharging the drive to a different object[[libido]], but rather changing the nature of the object a highly [[structure]]d relation to which the [[drive was already directed, a 'change of object in itself', something ]]s which is made possible because the drive is 'are already deeply marked by the articulation of the signifier' (S7, 293). The sublime quality of an object is thus not due to any intrinsic property of the object itself, but simply an effect of the object's position in the symbolic structure of fantasy. To be more specific, sublimation relocates an object in the position of the THING. The Lacanian formula for sublimation is thus that 'it raises an object . . . to the dignity of the Thing' (S7themselves, l 12)[[linguistic]] rather than [[biological]] forces.
4. While Lacan follows Whereas [[Freud in linking ]] believed that complete [[sublimation with creativity and ART, he complicates this by also linking it with the DEATH DRIVE (S4, 431). Severalreasons can ]] might be adduced to explain this. Firstlypossible for some particularly refined or cultured [[people]], the concept of the death drive is itself seen as a product of Freud's own [[Lacan]] argues that "complete sublimation (S7, 212). Secondly, thedeath drive is not only a 'destruction drive', but also 'a will to create from zero' (possible for the [[individual]]."<ref>{{S7, 212-13). Thirdly, the sublime object, through being elevated to thedignity of the Thing, exerts a power of fascination which leads ultimately to death and destruction}} p.91</ref>
== def ===Object=====In [[Freud]]'s account, [[sublimation]] involves the redirection of the [[drive]] to a different (non-sexual) object. In [[Lacan]]'s account, however, what changes is not the object but its [[position]] in the [[structure]] of [[fantasy]].
The redirection of sexual desire In [[other]] [[words]], [[sublimation]] does not involve directing the [[drive]] to "higher" aims. Freud saw sublimation as a protection against illnessdifferent [[object]], since it allowed but rather changing the subject to respond to sexual frustration (lack of gratification [[nature]] of the sexual impulse) by taking a new aim that, though still "genetically" (Introductory Lectures 16.345) related [[object]] to which the sexual impulse[[drive]] was already directed, is no longer properly sexual but social. In this waya "[[change]] of object in itself, civilization has been able to place "social aims higher than the sexual ones, something which are at bottom self-interested" (Introductory Lectures 16.345). This is not to say that made possible because the [[drive]] is "free mobility already deeply marked by the articulation of the libido" (Introductory Lectures 16[[signifier]].346) is ever fully contained: "sublimation is never able to deal with more than a certain fraction of libido" (Introductory Lectures 16.346)<ref>{{S7}} p.293</ref>
==def==In The [[psychologysublime]]quality of an [[object]] is thus not due to any intrinsic property of the [[object]] itself, '''sublimation''' is a but simply an effect of the [[copingobject]] mechanism. It has its roots 's position in the psychoanalytical approach, and is often also referred to as a type [[symbolic]] [[structure]] of [[defense mechanismfantasy]].
Sublimation is the refocusing of psychic energy (which =====Death Drive=====While [[Lacan]] follows [[Sigmund Freud]] believed was limited) away from negative outlets to more positive outlets. These drives which cannot find an outlet are rechanneled. For example, a student who has a major upcoming test, rather than spending time and energy worrying about it, would rechannel that time and energy into studying. In Freud's classic theory, erotic energy is only allowed limited expression due to in linking [[sublimation]] with [[Psychological repression|repressioncreativity]], and much of the remainder of a given group's erotic energy is used to develop its [[cultureart]] and , he complicates this by also linking it with the [[civilizationdeath drive]].<ref>{{S4}} p.431</ref>
Freud considered Several reasons can be adduced to explain this defense mechanism .# Firstly, the most productive compared to concept of the others that he identified (ie., [[Psychological repression|repressiondeath drive]], is itself seen as a product of [[Displacement_(psychology)|displacementFreud]]'s own [[sublimation."<ref>{{S7}} p.212</ref># Secondly, the [[denialdeath drive]], is not only a "[[reaction formationdestruction]]drive," but also "a will to crate from zero."<ref>{{S7}} p.212-3</ref># Thirdly, the [[intellectualizationsublime object]] and , through [[Psychological projection|projectionbeing]]). Sublimation is elevated to the process dignity of transforming the [[libidoThing]] into "social useful" achievements, mainly exerts a [[artpower]]of [[fascination]. Psychoanalysts often refer ] which leads ultimately to sublimation as the only truly successful defense mechanism.  [[Seminar XIdeath]] sublimation, 11, 165and destruction.
==See Also==
{{See}}
* [[Art]]
* [[Death drive]]
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* [[Drive]]
* [[Ethics]]
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* [[Fantasy]]
* [[Libido]]
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* [[Structure]]
* [[Thing]]
{{Also}}
== References ==
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