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Fantasy

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"[[fantasy]]" ([[Fr]]. ''{{Top}}[[fantasme]]''){{Bottom}}
==Sigmund Freud==
The [[concept ]] of [[fantasy]] is central to [[Freud]]'s [[Works of Sigmund Freud|work]].<ref>"[[Fantasy]]" is spelt "[[fantasy|phantasy]]" in the ''[[Standard Edition]]''.</ref> Indeed, the origin of [[psychoanalysis]] is bound up with [[Freud]]'s [[recognition]] in 1897 that [[memory|memories]] of [[seduction]] are sometimes the product of [[fantasy]] rather than traces of [[real]] [[sexual]] abuse. This crucial [[moment]] in the [[development]] of [[Freud]]'s [[thought]] (which is often simplistically dubbed "the abandonment of the seduction [[theory]]") seems to imply that [[fantasy]] is opposed to [[reality]], a purely [[illusory]] product of the [[imagination]] which stands in the way of a correct [[perception]] of reality. However, such a view of [[fantasy]] cannot be maintained in [[psychoanalytic theory]], since [[reality]] is not seen as an unproblematic given in which there is a single objectively correct way of perceiving, but as something which is itself discursively constructed.
===Fantasy Versus Reality===Indeed, Therefore the origin of [[psychoanalysischange]] is bound up with in [[Freud]]'s recognition [[ideas]] in 1897 that does not imply a [[rejection]] of the fundamentally discursive and imaginative [[nature]] of [[memory]]; [[memory|memories]] of [[seductionpast]] events are sometimes the product of continually [[being]] reshaped in accordance with [[unconscious]] [[desire]]s, so much so that [[symptom]]s originate not in any supposed "[[objective]] facts" but in a [[complex]] [[dialectic]] in which [[fantasy]] rather than traces of real sexual abuseplays a vital [[role]].
This crucial moment in the development of [[Freud]]'s thought (which is often simplistically dubbed "the abandonment of the seduction theory") seems to imply that [[fantasy]] is opposed to [[reality]], a purely illusory product of the imagination which stands in the way of a correct perception of reality. However, such a view of [[fantasy]] cannot be maintained in [[psychoanalytic theory]], since [[reality]] is not seen as an unproblematic given in which there is a single objectively correct way of perceiving, but as something which is itself discursively constructed. Therefore the change in [[Freud]]'s ideas in 1897 does not imply a rejection of the fundamentally discursive and imaginative nature of [[memory]]; [[memory|memories]] of past events are continually being reshaped in accordance with [[unconscious]] [[desire]]s, so much so that [[symptom]]s originate not in any supposed "objective facts" but in a complex [[dialectic]] in which [[fantasy]] plays a vital role. [[Freud]] uses the term "[[fantasy]]", then, to denote a [[scene]] which is presented to the imagination and which [[stages ]] an [[unconscious]] [[desire]].  The [[subject]] invariably plays a part in this [[scene]], even when this is not immediately [[apparent]] The [[fantasy|fantasized]] [[scene]] may be [[conscious]] or [[unconscious]].  When [[unconscious]], the [[analyst]] must reconstruct it on the basis of other clues.<ref>{{F}} "[[Works of Sigmund Freud|A Child Is Being Beaten]]," 1919e. [[SE]] XVII, 177.</ref>
==Jacques Lacan==
===Protection Function===
While [[Lacan]] accepts [[Freud]]'s formulations on the importance of [[fantasy]] and on its [[visual]] quality as a scenario which stages [[desire]], he emphasizes the protective function of [[fantasy]]. [[Lacan]] compares the [[fantasy]] [[scene]] to a frozen [[image]] on a [[cinema]] [[screen]]; just as the [[film]] may be stopped at a certain point in [[order]] to avoid showing a [[trauma]]tic [[scene]] which follows, so also the [[fantasy]] [[scene]] is a [[defence]] which veils [[castration]].<ref>{{S4}} pp. 119-120</ref> The [[fantasy]] is thus characterized by a fixed and immobile quality.
While ===Defence and Clinical Structure===Although "[[Lacanfantasy]] accepts " only emerges as a significant term in [[FreudLacan]]'s formulations [[work]] from 1957 on, the concept of a relatively [[stable]] mode of [[defence]] is evident earlier on . This concept is at the importance root both of [[Lacan]]'s [[idea]] of [[fantasy]] and on its visual quality his [[notion]] of [[clinical structure]]; both are conceived of as a scenario which stages relatively stable way of defending oneself against [[desirecastration]], he emphasizes against the [[lack]] in the [[Other]]. Each [[clinical structure]] may thus be distinguished by the protective function of [[particular]] way in which it uses a [[fantasy]] [[scene]] to [[veil]] the [[lack]] in the [[Other]].
===Neurotic Fantasy===The [[Lacanneurotic]] compares the [[fantasy]] , which [[Lacan]] formalizes in the [[scenematheme]] to ('''$ <> a frozen '''), appears in the [[imagegraph of desire]] on a cinema screen; jut as the film may be stopped at a certain point in order [[subject]]'s response to avoid showing a the enigmatic [[traumadesire]]tic of the [[sceneOther]] which follows, so also a way of answering the question [[about]] what the [[fantasyOther]] wants from me. (''[[sceneChe vuoi?]]'')<ref>{{E}} p. 313</ref>The [[matheme]] is a to be read: the [[bar]]red [[subject]] in relation to the [[object]]. The [[defenceperverse]] which veils [[castrationfantasy]] inverts this relation to the [[object]], and is thus formalized as '''''a'' <> $'''.<ref>{{S4Ec}} p.119-120774</ref>
The ===Fantasy of the Hysteric and Obsessional Neurotic===Although the [[matheme]] ('''S <> a''') designates the general [[structure]] of the [[neurotic]] [[fantasy]] is thus characterized by a fixed , [[Lacan]] also provides more specific [[formulas]] for the [[fantasy]] of the [[hysteric]] and immobile qualitythat of the [[obsessional neurotic]].<ref>{{S8}} p. 295</ref> While the various formulas of [[fantasy]] indicate the common features of the [[fantasy|fantasies]] of those who share the same [[clinical structure]], the [[analyst]] must also attend to the unique features which characterise each [[patient]]'s particular fantasmatic scenario.
===Fantasy and the Subject===
These unique features express the [[subject]]'s particular mode of ''[[jouissance]]'' though in a distorted way. The [[distortion]] evident in the [[fantasy]] marks it as a compromise [[formation]]; the [[fantasy]] is thus both that which enables the [[subject]] to sustain his [[desire]],<ref>{{S11}} p. 185; {{Ec}} p. 780</ref> and "that by which the subject sustains himself at the level of his vanishing desire."<ref>{{E}} p. 272</ref>
==More=Fundamental Fantasy===[[Lacan]] holds that beyond all the myriad [[images]] which appear in [[dream]]s and elsewhere there is always one "[[fantasy|fundamental fantasy]]" which is [[unconscious]].<ref>{{S8}} p. 127</ref> In the course of [[psychoanalytic treatment]], the [[analyst]] reconstructs the [[analysand]]'s [[fantasy]] in all its details. However, the [[treatment]] does not stop there; the analysand must go on to "[[fantasy|traverse the fundamental fantasy]]."<ref>{{S11}} p. 273</ref> In other [[words]], the [[treatment]] must produce some modification of the [[subject]]'s fundamental mode of [[defence]], some alteration in his mode of ''[[jouissance]]''.
===Image and Symbolic Structure===Although "[[Lacan]] recognizes the [[power]] of the [[image]] in [[fantasy]], he insists that this is due not to any intrinsic quality of the [[image]] in itself but to the [[place]] which it occupies in a [[symbolic]] [[structure]]; the [[fantasy]]is always " only emerges as an image set to work in a significant term in signifying structure."<ref>{{E}} p. 272</ref> <!--===Kleinian Account of Fantasy===[[Lacan]]'s work from 1957 oncriticizes the [[Klein]]ian account of [[fantasy]] for not taking this [[symbolic]] [[structure]] fully into account, and thus remaining at the concept level of the [[imaginary]]; "any attempt to reduce [fantasy] to the imagination . . . is a permanent misconception."<ref>{{E}} p. 272</ref> In the 1960s, [[Lacan]] devotes a relatively stable mode [[whole]] year of his [[defenceseminar]] to discussing what he calls "the [[logic]] of fantasy," again stressing the importance of the [[signification|signifying]] [[structure]] in [[fantasy]] is evident earlier on.<ref>{{S14}}</ref>-->
This concept is at == In the root both work of Slavoj Žižek ==Like many of Žižek’s foundational theories, fantasy derives from the [[psychoanalytic]] work of Freud and Lacan. For Freud, fantasy emerged in his 1897 discovery that [[memories]]'s idea of seduction may be the result of fantasy as opposed to actual sexual [[violence]]. In common parlance, fantasydenotes a [[separation]] from reality, a [[construction]] that is fictional and his notion of therefore opposed to reality. Freud’s discovery, though, challenges this widespread [[understanding]]. For psychoanalysis, reality is problematic when it is assumed that it distinguishes authentic or unmediated [[experience]] for the subject. Reality is more properly [[clinical structureunderstood]]; both are conceived of as a relatively stable way of defending oneself against perceiving that is already stained by the [[castrationhuman]]subject’s desire. Therefore, against reality is already a [[subjective]] [[process]] mediated by desire and constructed discursively. Fantasy, then, [[acts]] as a scene that stages desire in the imagination of the subject. For this [[lackreason]] , Lacan states in his fourteenth seminar, ''The [[Logic of Fantasy]]'': “Desire is the [[Otheressence]] of reality” (''S''XIV: 6). The principal point for Lacan, here, is that fantasy is the setting for desire where fantasy provides the [[matrix]] through which [[subjects]]begin to desire.
Each For Žižek, fantasy is not an exercise in fulfilment, contentment or [[satisfaction]]. Instead, it provides a scene for a privileged yet [[clinical structurearbitrary]] may thus be distinguished by object that embodies the particular way force of desire. The foundational premise of fantasy in which this rendering lies in the [[claim]] that desire is not something that is given; rather, it uses is assembled. Therefore, fantasy acts as a structure that provides the coordinates for a subject’s desire. That is, fantasy provides the idea of a privileged object that desire fixates on in order to provide the subject with its [[fantasyposition]] in relation to it. This privileged object acts as the ''[[objet petit a]]'' or object-[[cause]] of desire. This object [[structures]] the subject’s experience of the [[world]] in so far as this object is taken as more than its [[scenematerial]] property. The object that consumes desire and therefore occupies the fantasy of the subject must first fall prey to veil the [[lackillusion]] that it is more than its pragmatic material. The object is marked by this structure as being more than its materiality, as being endowed with the promise to [[satisfy]] in the desire that necessitates it. Thus, fantasy acts as the mode whereby the subject learns to desire because through fantasy the subject is situated as [[Otherdesiring]].
The role fantasy plays is twofold: [[neuroticuniversal]] and particular. Fantasy is a universal structure that indexes, points or directs our desire towards a [[fantasyphysical]]manifestation that occupies desire. Yet, what is particular to each and every subject is the way fantasy structures the relation to the trauma of lack predicated by desire. This constitutive lack that the privileged object promises to fulfil acts as a screen that orients each fantasy, which in turn supports desire in order to shield the subject from the trauma of lack itself. In this way, fantasy bestows reality with a fictional [[Lacancoherence]] formalizes in and consistency that appears to fulfil the lack that constitutes [[mathemesocial]] ($ D reality. Hence, Žižek’s foremost contribution to this long-theorized notion lies in showing how fantasy serves as a)[[political]] structure. He reveals how fantasy can fill in [[ideological]] gaps and provide access to [[obscene]] ''[[jouissance]]'', appears and he contends that a failure to explicate the essence of political beliefs does not imply any failure in the hold these beliefs have over us. Instead, political [[graph ideologies]] serve to give subjects a means of desireenvisioning the world in which such a failure emerges as evidence as to how transcendent is their particular [[ideology]]. Fantasy serves [[politics]] precisely in that each political group must recognize its point of view as manifested in the extrapolitical fantasy [[subjectobjects]] customary within that specific [[nation]]'s response to the enigmatic , [[desireculture]] of the or [[Otherreligion]]. If not, a way of answering these groups must displace the question about what sitting ideologies’ fantasy objects with their chosen manifestations. Consequently, for Žižek, fantasy goes beyond the usual symbolic coordinates, so that [[Othertraversing]] wants from me. (''Che vuoi?'')<ref>{{E}} pthe fantasy does not mean getting rid of the fantasy but being even more taken up by it.313</ref>
The Fantasy, therefore, acts as a way for the subject to envisage a way out of the [[dissatisfaction]] produced by the [[demands]] of [[social reality]] through these objects or ideas (e.g. [[freedom]], brotherhood, the [[Church]]). In this [[mathemesense]] , fantasy is to be reada [[psychological]] structure that manifests itself in a [[phenomenological]] [[form]]. And, while fantasy might not provide us with the object itself, it can provide something of equal consequence: the scene of attaining the privileged object that renders attainment as a possibility. Fantasy organizes and domesticates the ''jouissance'' that provides the framework through which we experience reality; therefore, this structure – and the arbitrary object that animates it – acts as a defence against the [[traumatic]] [[barloss]]red of ''jouissance'' that occurs through entering [[the symbolic]] order. In turn, fantasy can surface in a more evident socio-symbolic way in which it assuages unrest by depoliticizing the social [[body]] for the purposes of accepting a ruling ideology. Fantasy thus serves as a way to distract, even encourage, the [[social body]] from directly engaging with the dissatisfaction of lack. Although lack is constitutive of every human subject, the political advocacy of a social body can [[help]] organize a [[society]] in relation better to manage dissatisfaction as a by-product of the demands of that social reality. Therefore, fantasy acts as a way to fracture political [[unity]] by focusing attention on [object[individual]]satisfaction imagined to be the promise of a unique privileged object.
Because fantasy offers the promise of satisfaction as part of a privileged object, we [[understand]] this object as being apart from our [[self]]. [[Enjoyment]] derived from this fantasy image is therefore projected onto the Other. As a path to [[repress]] the idea of a non-[[lacking]] subject, the subject we fantasize and therefore imagine as a possibility, we [[project]] onto the Other the enjoyment we lack. Žižek argues that this places the subject in a position of understanding the Other obtaining enjoyment at our expense. Because we are able to fantasize an [[impossible]] enjoyment, we also misattribute this [[impossibility]] to an Other that seems to [[enjoy]] in a way we cannot experience but only imagine. Since fantasy provides us with the coordinates to domesticate our [[desire,]] in order to fulfil lack we rarely attribute lack as an experience beyond our self. The [[perversedistinction]] between our own lack of impossible enjoyment and the non-lacking status of the Other opens the possibility of a violence predicated on destroying the enjoyment we fantasize this Other to possess at our expense. [[The logic of fantasy]] inverts this in relation to lack suggests that, if I am lacking, it is because some other nefarious [[figure]] has stolen it, and thus the lack of lack, as it were, becomes an object of possession under [[capitalism]]. This rendering is consistent with Žižek’s assertion that fantasy leads to all varieties of discrimination: [[objectracism]], sexism, ageism and [[homophobia]], among [[others]]. Th is thus formalized as ''non-lacking status takes the form of a'' D $.<ref>{{Ec}} pperson or [[thing]] we understand through [[cultural]] [[myth]] or [[capitalist]] ideology.774</ref>
Consequently, fantasy offers us the illusion that the object we pursue will assuage the discomfort of lack. In this formulation, desire is separated from [[drive]] because it privileges the object of our fantasy that presents itself as the [[cure]] for lack. Desire, in this [[case]], predicates its function on the attainment of the object of our fantasies, while drive reaches satisfaction through the continual pursuit of this object. That is, drive functions through the [[repetition]] of this cycle whereas desire places [[faith]] in the redeeming quality of the object. The privileged object of our desire and the fantasy that supports it act in two ways: (a) as the site where the human subject invests in the hope for an enjoyment (''jouissance'') that will [[return]] the subject to a non-lacking [[state]], which allows each human subject to tolerate this status; and (b) as a fantasmatic, and thus arbitrary, promise of a non-lacking status that does not [[exist]], which replaces a [[partial]] and obtainable enjoyment by holding out the idea of a [[total]] enjoyment that it ultimately cannot produce or [[guarantee]]. Desire constantly moves forwards from object to object because each new instantiation of our fantasy fails to provide the satisfaction the human subject believes it will provide. In this sense, fantasy remains the same, but our desire forces us to continue the [[search]] for the impossible owing to the inherent failure each object represents. Because the subject does not lack an experiential object, lack is misattributed as a [[negative]] [[category]] that can be overcome by addition.
The subject [[lacks]], but what it lacks is [[nothing]] and each new object fails to satisfy because it can only offer something.
==MoreSee Also== Although the matheme (S <> a) designates the general structure of the neurotic fantasy, Lacan also provides more specific formulas for the fantasy of the hysteric and that of the obsessional neurotic.<ref>{{S8See}} p.295</ref> * [[Castration]]* [[Hysteria]]While the various formulas of fantasy indicate the common features of the fantasies of those who share the same clinical structure, the analyst must also attend to the unique features which characterise each patient's particular fantasmatic scenario.* [[Image]]||These unique features express the subject* 's particular mode of ./OUISSANCE, though in a distorted way. The distortion evident in the fantasy marks it as a compromise formation; the fantasy is thus both that which enables the subject to sustain his desire,<ref>{{S11}} p.185; {{Ec}} p.780</ref> and "that by which the subject sustains himself at the level of his vanishing desire."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>  ==More==Lacan holds that beyond all the myriad images which appear in dreams and elsewhere there is always one 'fundamental fantasy' which is unconscious.<ref>{{S8}} p.127</ref> In the course of psychoanalytic treatment, the analyst reconstructs the analysand[[Jouissance]]'s fantasy in all its details. However, the treatment does not stop there; the analysand must go on to 'traverse the fundamental fantasy."<ref>{{S11}} p.273</ref>. * [[Lack]]In other words, the treatment must produce some modification of the subject's fundamental mode of defence, some alteration in his mode of jouissance.* [[Matheme]]||==More==Although * [[LacanNeurosis]] recognises the power of the image in fantasy, he insists that this is due not to any intrinsic quality of the image in itself but to the place which it occupies in a symbolic structure; the fantasy is always 'an image set to work in a signifying structure."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>  * [[LacanObsessional neurosis]] criticises the * [[KleinStructure]]ian account of fantasy for not taking this symbolic structure fully into account, and thus remaining at the level of the imaginary; 'any attempt to reduce ||* [[fantasySubject]] to the imagination . . . is a permanent misconception."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>  In the 1960s, * [[LacanTreatment]] devotes a whole year of his seminar to discussing what he calls "the logic of fantasy," again stressing the importance of the signifying structure in * [[fantasyUnconscious]].<ref>{{LAlso}} 1966-7</ref>
==References==
<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small"><references/></div>[[Category:Psychoanalysis]][[Category:Jacques Lacan]][[Category:Practice]]
[[Category:Dictionary]]
[[Category:Treatment]]
[[Category:Sexuality]]
[[Category:Concepts]]
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[[Category:Zizek Dictionary]]
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