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Fantasy

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==Sigmund Freud==
===Psychoanalysis===
The concept of [[fantasy]] is central to [[Freud]]'s [[Works of Sigmund Freud|work]].<ref>"[[Fantasy]]" is spelt "[[fantasy|phantasy]]" in the ''[[Standard Edition]]''.</ref>
===Fantasy Versus Reality===
Indeed, the origin of [[psychoanalysis]] is bound up with [[Freud]]'s recognition in 1897 that [[memory|memories]] of [[seduction]] are sometimes the product of [[fantasy]] rather than traces of real sexual abuse.
===Fantasy Versus Reality===
This crucial moment in the development of [[Freud]]'s thought (which is often simplistically dubbed "the abandonment of the seduction theory") seems to imply that [[fantasy]] is opposed to [[reality]], a purely illusory product of the imagination which stands in the way of a correct perception of reality.
However, such a view of [[fantasy]] cannot be maintained in [[psychoanalytic theory]], since [[reality]] is not seen as an unproblematic given in which there is a single objectively correct way of perceiving, but as something which is itself discursively constructed.
===Memory===
Therefore the change in [[Freud]]'s ideas in 1897 does not imply a rejection of the fundamentally discursive and imaginative nature of [[memory]]; [[memory|memories]] of past events are continually being reshaped in accordance with [[unconscious]] [[desire]]s, so much so that [[symptom]]s originate not in any supposed "objective facts" but in a complex [[dialectic]] in which [[fantasy]] plays a vital role.
===Scene===
[[Freud]] uses the term "[[fantasy]]", then, to denote a [[scene]] which is presented to the imagination and which stages an [[unconscious]] [[desire]].
==Jacques Lacan==
===Protection Function===
While [[Lacan]] accepts [[Freud]]'s formulations on the importance of [[fantasy]] and on its visual quality as a scenario which stages [[desire]], he emphasizes the protective function of [[fantasy]].
The [[fantasy]] is thus characterized by a fixed and immobile quality.
 ==More=Defence and Clinical Structure=== 
Although "[[fantasy]]" only emerges as a significant term in [[Lacan]]'s work from 1957 on, the concept of a relatively stable mode of [[defence]] is evident earlier on.
Each [[clinical structure]] may thus be distinguished by the particular way in which it uses a [[fantasy]] [[scene]] to veil the [[lack]] in the [[Other]].
===Neurotic Fantasy===The [[neurotic]] [[fantasy]], which [[Lacan]] formalizes in the [[matheme]] ('''$ D <> a'''), appears in the [[graph of desire]] as the [[subject]]'s response to the enigmatic [[desire]] of the [[Other]], a way of answering the question about what the [[Other]] wants from me. (''[[Che vuoi?]]'')<ref>{{E}} p.313</ref>
The [[matheme]] is to be read: the [[bar]]red [[subject]] in relation to the [[object]].
The [[perverse]] [[fantasy]] inverts this relation to the [[object]], and is thus formalized as '''''a'' D <> $'''.<ref>{{Ec}} p.774</ref>  
==More=Fantasy of the Hysteric and Obsessional Neurotic===Although the [[matheme]] ('''S <> a''') designates the general [[structure]] of the [[neurotic]] [[fantasy]], [[Lacan]] also provides more specific formulas for the [[fantasy]] of the [[hysteric]] and that of the [[obsessional neurotic]].<ref>{{S8}} p.295</ref>
Although While the matheme (S <> a) designates various formulas of [[fantasy]] indicate the general structure common features of the neurotic [[fantasy|fantasies]] of those who share the same [[clinical structure]], Lacan the [[analyst]] must also provides more specific formulas for the fantasy of attend to the hysteric and that of the obsessional neurotic.<ref>{{S8}} punique features which characterise each [[patient]]'s particular fantasmatic scenario.295</ref>
===Fantasy and the Subject===
These unique features express the [[subject]]'s particular mode of ''[[jouissance]]'' though in a distorted way.
While The distortion evident in the various formulas of [[fantasy indicate ]] marks it as a compromise formation; the common features of [[fantasy]] is thus both that which enables the fantasies of those who share the same clinical structure[[subject]] to sustain his [[desire]], <ref>{{S11}} p.185; {{Ec}} p.780</ref> and "that by which the analyst must also attend to subject sustains himself at the unique features which characterise each patient's particular fantasmatic scenariolevel of his vanishing desire."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>
These unique features express ===Fundamental Fantasy===[[Lacan]] holds that beyond all the subject'myriad images which appear in [[dream]]s particular mode of ./OUISSANCE, though in a distorted way. The distortion evident in the and elsewhere there is always one "[[fantasy marks it as a compromise formation; the |fundamental fantasy is thus both that which enables the subject to sustain his desire,<ref>{{S11}} p.185; {{Ec}} p.780</ref> and ]]"that by which the subject sustains himself at the level of his vanishing desireis [[unconscious]]."<ref>{{ES8}} p.272127</ref>
In the course of [[psychoanalytic treatment]], the [[analyst]] reconstructs the [[analysand]]'s [[fantasy]] in all its details.
==More==Lacan holds that beyond all However, the myriad images which appear in dreams and elsewhere [[treatment]] does not stop there is always one '; the analysand must go on to "[[fantasy|traverse the fundamental fantasy' which is unconscious]]."<ref>{{S8S11}} p.127273</ref>.
In other words, the course [[treatment]] must produce some modification of psychoanalytic treatment, the analyst reconstructs the analysand[[subject]]'s fantasy fundamental mode of [[defence]], some alteration in all its details. However, the treatment does not stop there; the analysand must go on to his mode of ''[[jouissance]]''traverse the fundamental fantasy."<ref>{{S11}} p.273</ref>.
In other words, ===Image and Symbolic Structure===Although [[Lacan]] recognises the treatment must produce some modification power of the subject's fundamental mode [[image]] in [[fantasy]], he insists that this is due not to any intrinsic quality of defence, some alteration the [[image]] in itself but to the place which it occupies in a [[symbolic]] [[structure]]; the [[fantasy]] is always "an image set to work in his mode of jouissancea signifying structure."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>
==More=Kleinian Account of Fantasy===Although [[Lacan]] recognises criticises the power [[Klein]]ian account of the image in [[fantasy]] for not taking this [[symbolic]] [[structure]] fully into account, he insists that this is due not to any intrinsic quality and thus remaining at the level of the image in itself but [[imaginary]]; "any attempt to reduce [fantasy] to the place which it occupies in a symbolic structure; the fantasy imagination . . . is always 'an image set to work in a signifying structurepermanent misconception."<ref>{{E}} p.272</ref>
In the 1960s, [[Lacan]] criticises the devotes a whole year of his [[Kleinseminar]]ian account to discussing what he calls "the logic of fantasy for not taking this symbolic structure fully into account, and thus remaining at " again stressing the level importance of the imaginary; 'any attempt to reduce [[signification|signifying]] [[structure]] in [[fantasy] to the imagination . . ]. is a permanent misconception."<ref>{{ES14}} p.272</ref>
In the 1960s, ==See Also=={{See}}* [[Castration]]* [[Hysteria]]* [[Image]]||* ''[[Jouissance]]''* [[Lack]]* [[Matheme]]||* [[Neurosis]]* [[Obsessional neurosis]]* [[Structure]]||* [[Subject]]* [[LacanTreatment]] devotes a whole year of his seminar to discussing what he calls "the logic of fantasy," again stressing the importance of the signifying structure in * [[fantasyUnconscious]].<ref>{{S14Also}}</ref>
==References==
[[Category:Concepts]]
[[Category:Terms]]
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