Lack and Desire
Lack of Being
Lacan returns to this theme in 1958, when he argues that desire is the metonymy of the lack of being (manque à être). The subject's lack of being is "the heart of the analytic experience" and "the very field in which the neurotic's passion is deployed. Lacan contrasts the lack of being, which relates to desire, with the lack of having (manque à avoir), which relates to demand.
Lack of an Object
|Real father||Symbolic castration||Imaginary phallus|
|Symbolic mother||Imaginary frustration||Real breast|
|Imaginary father||Real privation||Symbolic phallus|
In 1957, when Lacan introduces the algebraic symbol for the barred Other (
A), lack comes to designate the lack of a signifier in the Other. Lacan introduces the symbol S( A) to designate "the signifier of a lack in the Other." No matter how many signifiers one adds to the signifying chain, the chain is always incomplete; it always lacks the signifier that could complete it. This "missing signifier" (written -1 in Lacanian algebra) is constitutive of the subject.
- Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre VIII. Le transfert, 1960-61. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p. 139
- Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book II. The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis, 1954-55. Trans. Sylvana Tomaselli. New York: Nortion; Cambridge: Cambridge Unviersity Press, 1988. p. 223
- Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p. 259; translated by Sheridan as "want-to-be"
- Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p. 251
- Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Paris: Seuil, 1966. p. 730
- Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre IV. La relation d'objet, 19566-57. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p. 269