Difference between revisions of "Privation"

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{{Top}}lack of object|privation{{Bottom}}
 
 
==Sigmund Freud==
 
The concept of [[privation]] is essential for [[Freud]].
 
 
 
In [[The Future of An Illusion]], he writes:
 
 
 
<blockquote>"For the sake of a uniform terminology we will describe the fact that an instinct cannot be satisfied as a 'frustration,' the regulation by which this frustration is established as a 'prohibition' and the condition which is produced by the prohibition as a 'privation.'"<ref>[[Freud, Sigmund]]. [[The Future of An Illusion]]. p.10</ref></blockquote>
 
 
 
Later in the same essay, he defines more specifically the [[drive]]-[[wish]]es that result from [[privation]]: [[incest]], the [[pleasure]] in and w[[ish]] to [[murder]], and [[cannibalism]].
 
 
 
==Melanie Klein==
 
[[Melanie Klein]] and [[Jacques Lacan]] are the main authors to have taken up this concept.
 
 
 
For [[Klein]], [[privation]] is the basis for the [[paranoid]] [[position]].
 
 
 
<blockquote>"Persecutory anxiety, therefore, enters from the beginning into [the baby's] relation to objects in so far as he is exposed to privations."<ref>Klein, 1932/1952b, p. 199</ref></blockquote>
 
 
 
<blockquote>"Feelings of frustration and grievance lead to phantasying backwards and often focus in retrospect on the privations suffered in relation to the mother's breast."<ref>Klein, 1952a, p. 265</ref></blockquote>
 
 
 
All [[feeling]]s of [[privation]] or [[frustration]] originate in the [[subject]]'s relationship with the [[mother]], specifically with the [[maternal]] [[breast]].
 
 
 
These [[feeling]]s are also articulated with [[persecution]] and [[fragmentation anxieties]].
 
 
 
  
 
==Jacques Lacan==
 
==Jacques Lacan==
For [[Jacques Lacan]], archaic persecution or [[fragmentation]] [[anxieties]] are to be deduced from [[castration anxiety]] and are not its precursors.
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===Lack of Object===
 
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In his [[seminar]] of 1956-7, [[Seminar IV|Object Relations]], [[Lacan]] distinguishes between [[three]] types of "[[lack of object]]":  
[[Privation]] is what is inscribed in the [[Real]] and reveals its nature.
 
 
 
[[Privation]] corresponds to the "hole" in the [[Real]]; it is the basis of the [[Symbolic]] [[Order]], and the [[agent]] who deprives is always [[Imaginary]].
 
 
 
[[Lacan]]'s answer to the question concerning what is actually being deprived is that
 
 
 
<blockquote>"It is especially the fact that the Woman does not have a penis, that She is deprived of it. The very notion of privation, so tangible and visible in an experience such as that one, implies the symbolization of the object in the real. For in the real, nothing is deprived of anything. Everything that is real is sufficient unto itself.  By definition, the real is full [plein]. If we introduce the notion of privation into the real, it is to the extent that we can already symbolize it adequately, or even completely. Indicating that something is not there means supposing its possible presence—that is, introducing into the real, in order to recover it and hollow it out, the simple symbolic order."<ref>{{S4}} pp.237-270</ref></blockquote>
 
 
 
The [[reversal]] effected by [[Lacan]], as compared to authors inspired by [[Klein]], is striking, and it is the basis for his claim of making a rigorous [[return]] to [[Freud]].
 
 
 
However, his was a return to a particular [[Freud]]: In [[Freud]]ian thought, while [[woman]] is indeed deprived of a [[penis]], the [[male]] [[child]] is just as deprived of the [[breast]].
 
 
 
Although [[woman]] can aspire to replace what she [[lack]]s by bearing a [[child]], [[man]] must replace that which he has been deprived of with "spiritual nourishment," or thought.
 
 
 
==Three types of lack==
 
In his [[seminar]] of 1956-7, [[Seminar IV|Object Relations]], [[Lacan]] distinguishes between three types of '[[lack]] of [[object]]':  
 
 
# [[privation]],  
 
# [[privation]],  
# [[frustration]] and  
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# '''[[frustration]]''' and  
# [[castration]].  
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# '''[[castration]]'''.  
  
Each of these types of [[lack]] is located in a different [[order]], each is brought about by a different kind of [[agent]], and each involves a different kind of [[object]].  
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Each of these types of [[lack]] is located in a different [[order]], each is brought [[about]] by a different kind of [[agent]], and each involves a different kind of [[object]].  
  
==Definition==
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===Lack in the Real of a Symbolic Object===
 
[[Privation]] is defined as a [[lack]] in the [[real]] of a [[symbolic]] [[object]] (the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]]).  
 
[[Privation]] is defined as a [[lack]] in the [[real]] of a [[symbolic]] [[object]] (the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]]).  
  
 
The [[agent]] who brings about this [[lack]] is the [[imaginary]] [[father]].
 
The [[agent]] who brings about this [[lack]] is the [[imaginary]] [[father]].
  
==Castration complex==
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===Castration Complex===
[[Privation]] is [[Lacan]]'s attempt to theorise more rigorously [[Freud]]'s concept of [[female]] [[castration]] and [[penis envy]].  
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[[Privation]] is [[Lacan]]'s attempt to theorize more rigorously [[Freud]]'s [[concept]] of [[female]] [[castration]] and [[penis envy]].  
  
According to [[Freud]], when [[children]] realize that some people ([[women]]) do not have a [[penis]], this is a [[traumatic]] moment which produces different effects in the [[boy]] and in the [[girl]] (see [[castration complex]]).  
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According to [[Freud]], when [[children]] realize that some [[people]] ([[women]]) do not have a [[penis]], this is a [[traumatic]] [[moment]] which produces different effects in the [[boy]] and in the [[girl]] (see [[castration complex]]).  
  
Whereas the [[boy]] develops a [[fear]] of having his [[penis]] cut off, the [[girl]] envies the [[boy]] his possession of the [[penis]], which she sees as a highly   desirable organ.  
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Whereas the [[boy]] develops a [[fear]] of having his [[penis]] cut off, the [[girl]] envies the [[boy]] his possession of the [[penis]], which she sees as a highly desirable [[organ]].  
  
The [[girl]] blames the [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]], and redirects her affections to the father in the hope that he will provide her with a [[child]] as a [[symbolic]] [[substitute]] for the [[penis]] she [[lacks]].<ref>Freud, 1924d</ref>
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The [[girl]] blames the [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]], and redirects her affections to the father in the hope that he will provide her with a [[child]] as a [[symbolic]] [[substitute]] for the [[penis]] she [[lacks]].<ref>{{F}} (1924d) ''[[Sigmund Freud:Bibliography|An Autobiographical Study]]''. [[SE]] XX, 3.</ref>
  
 
[[Privation]], then, refers to the [[female]]'s [[lack]] of a [[penis]], which is clearly a [[lack]] in the [[Real]].  
 
[[Privation]], then, refers to the [[female]]'s [[lack]] of a [[penis]], which is clearly a [[lack]] in the [[Real]].  
  
==The real==
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===The Real===
However, by definition, "the [[real]] is full".
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However, by definition, "the [[real]] is [[full]]".
  
The [[real]] is never [[lacking]] in itself, and thus "the notion of privation ... implies the [[symbolisation]] of the [[object]] in the [[real]]."<ref>{{S4}} p.218</ref>
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The [[real]] is never [[lacking]] in itself, and thus "the [[notion]] of privation ... implies the [[symbolisation]] of the [[object]] in the [[real]]."<ref>{{S4}} p. 218</ref>
  
In other words, when the [[child]] perceives the [[penis]] (a rea] organ) as [[absent]], it is only because he has a notion that it somehow should be there, which is to introduce the [[symbolic]] into the [[real]].  
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In [[other]] [[words]], when the [[child]] perceives the [[penis]] (a real organ) as [[absent]], it is only because he has a notion that it somehow should be there, which is to introduce the [[symbolic]] into the [[real]].  
  
Thus what is [[lacking]] is not the [[real]] organ, for, [[biologically]] speaking, the [[vagina]] is not incomplete without one; what is [[lacking]] is a [[Symbolic]] object, the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]].  
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Thus what is [[lacking]] is not the [[real]] organ, for, [[biologically]] [[speaking]], the vagina is not incomplete without one; what is [[lacking]] is a [[symbolic]] object, the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]].  
  
Its [[symbolic]] nature is confirmed by the fact that it can be [[substituted]] by a [[child]] in the [[girl]]'s [[unconscious]]; in appeasing her [[penis envy]] by [[desiring]] a [[child]], [[Freud]] argues, the [[girl]] "[[slip]]s - along the lines of a [[symbolic]] equation, one might say - from the [[penis]] to a [[baby]]."<ref>Freud, 1924d: SE XIX, 178-9</ref>
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Its [[symbolic]] [[nature]] is confirmed by the fact that it can be substituted by a [[child]] in the [[girl]]'s [[unconscious]]; in appeasing her [[penis envy]] by [[desiring]] a [[child]], [[Freud]] argues, the [[girl]] "[[slip]]s - along the lines of a [[symbolic]] equation, one might say - from the [[penis]] to a [[baby]]."<ref>{{F}} (1924d) "[[Sigmund Freud:Bibliography|The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex]]." [[SE]] XIX, 178-9</ref>
  
 
[[Freud]] argues that the little [[girl]] blames her [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]].  
 
[[Freud]] argues that the little [[girl]] blames her [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]].  
  
[[Lacan]], however, argues that it is the [[Imaginary]] father who is held to be    the [[agent]] of [[privation]].  
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[[Lacan]], however, argues that it is the [[imaginary]] father who is held to be    the [[agent]] of [[privation]].  
  
However, these two accounts are not necessarily incompatible.  
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However, these two accounts are not necessarily incompatible.
  
==From Girl to Mother==
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===Girl and Mother===
Even though the [[girl]] may at first resent the [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]] and turn to the [[father]] in the hope that he will provide her with a [[symbolic]] [[substitute]], she later turns her resentment against the [[father]] when he fails to provide her with the [[desired]] [[child]].
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Even though the [[girl]] may at first resent the [[mother]] for depriving her of a [[penis]] and turn to the [[father]] in the hope that he will provide her with a [[symbolic]] [[substitute]], she later turns her resentment against the [[father]] when he fails to provide her with the desired [[child]].
  
[[Freud]] argues that [[penis envy]] persists into [[adulthood]], manifesting itself both in the [[desire]] to [[enjoy]] the [[penis]] in [[sexual intercourse]], and in the [[desire]] to have a [[child]] (since the [[father]] has failed to provide her with a [[child]], the [[woman]] turns to another [[man]] instead).  
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[[Freud]] argues that [[penis envy]] persists into [[adulthood]], manifesting itself both in the [[desire]] to [[enjoy]] the [[penis]] in [[sexual]] intercourse, and in the [[desire]] to have a [[child]] (since the [[father]] has failed to provide her with a [[child]], the [[woman]] turns to [[another]] [[man]] instead).  
  
[[Lacan]] argues that even when the [[woman]] has a [[child]], this does not spell the end of her sense of [[privation]].  
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[[Lacan]] argues that even when the [[woman]] has a [[child]], this does not spell the end of her [[sense]] of [[privation]].  
  
 
Her [[desire]] for the [[phallus]] remains [[unsatisfied]], no matter how many [[children]] she has.  
 
Her [[desire]] for the [[phallus]] remains [[unsatisfied]], no matter how many [[children]] she has.  
  
The [[mother]]'s basic [[dissatisfaction]] is perceived by the [[child]] from very early on; he  realizes that she has a [[desire]] that aims at something beyond her [[dual relationship]] with him - the [[imaginary]] [[phallus]].<ref>{{S4}} p.194</ref>
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The [[mother]]'s basic [[dissatisfaction]] is perceived by the [[child]] from very early on; he  realizes that she has a [[desire]] that aims at something beyond her [[dual relationship]] with him - the [[imaginary]] [[phallus]].<ref>{{S4}} p. 194</ref>
  
 
The [[child]] then seeks to fulfil her [[desire]] by [[identifying]] with the [[Imaginary]] [[phallus]].  
 
The [[child]] then seeks to fulfil her [[desire]] by [[identifying]] with the [[Imaginary]] [[phallus]].  
  
In this way, the [[privation]] of the [[mother]] is responsible for introducing the [[dialectic]] of [[desire]] in the [[child]]'s life for the first time.
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In this way, the [[privation]] of the [[mother]] is [[responsible]] for introducing the [[dialectic]] of [[desire]] in the [[child]]'s [[life]] for the first [[time]].
 
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
* [[Amnesia]]
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{{See}}
* [[Child analysis]]
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* [[Castration]]
* [[Deprivation]]
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* [[Desire]]
* [[Disintegration]]
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||
* [[castration]]
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* [[Dialectic]]
* [[Feminism]]
 
 
* [[Frustration]]
 
* [[Frustration]]
* [[Forgetting]]
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||
* [[need]]
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* [[Castration]]
* [[father]]
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* [[Frustration]]
* [[Schizophrenia]]
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||
* [[Weaning]]
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* [[Mother]]
 +
* [[Need]]
 +
||
 +
* [[Phallus]]
 +
* [[Father]]
 +
{{Also}}
  
== References ==
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==References==
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<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
* Freud, Sigmund. (1927c). The future of an illusion. SE, 21: 1-56.
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</div>
* Klein, Melanie. (1952a). On observing the behaviour of young infants. In Melanie Klein, Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs, and Joan Rivière (Eds.). Developments in psychoanalysis (pp. 237-270). London: Hogarth.
 
* Klein, Melanie. (1952b). Some theoretical conclusions regarding the emotional life of the infant. In Melanie Klein, Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs, and Joan Rivière. (Eds.). Developments in psychoanalysis (pp. 198-236). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1932)
 
* [[Lacan, Jacques]]. (1956-57). Le séminaire: Livre IV, La relation d'objet (pp. 237-270). Paris: Le Seuil.
 
  
[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
 
 
[[Category:Freudian psychology]]
 
[[Category:Freudian psychology]]
[[Category:Dictionary]]
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{{OK}}
[[Category:Terms]]
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[[Category:Concepts]]
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__NOTOC__
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 

Latest revision as of 17:24, 20 May 2019

French: privation

Jacques Lacan

Lack of Object

In his seminar of 1956-7, Object Relations, Lacan distinguishes between three types of "lack of object":

  1. privation,
  2. frustration and
  3. castration.

Each of these types of lack is located in a different order, each is brought about by a different kind of agent, and each involves a different kind of object.

Lack in the Real of a Symbolic Object

Privation is defined as a lack in the real of a symbolic object (the symbolic phallus).

The agent who brings about this lack is the imaginary father.

Castration Complex

Privation is Lacan's attempt to theorize more rigorously Freud's concept of female castration and penis envy.

According to Freud, when children realize that some people (women) do not have a penis, this is a traumatic moment which produces different effects in the boy and in the girl (see castration complex).

Whereas the boy develops a fear of having his penis cut off, the girl envies the boy his possession of the penis, which she sees as a highly desirable organ.

The girl blames the mother for depriving her of a penis, and redirects her affections to the father in the hope that he will provide her with a child as a symbolic substitute for the penis she lacks.[1]

Privation, then, refers to the female's lack of a penis, which is clearly a lack in the Real.

The Real

However, by definition, "the real is full".

The real is never lacking in itself, and thus "the notion of privation ... implies the symbolisation of the object in the real."[2]

In other words, when the child perceives the penis (a real organ) as absent, it is only because he has a notion that it somehow should be there, which is to introduce the symbolic into the real.

Thus what is lacking is not the real organ, for, biologically speaking, the vagina is not incomplete without one; what is lacking is a symbolic object, the symbolic phallus.

Its symbolic nature is confirmed by the fact that it can be substituted by a child in the girl's unconscious; in appeasing her penis envy by desiring a child, Freud argues, the girl "slips - along the lines of a symbolic equation, one might say - from the penis to a baby."[3]

Freud argues that the little girl blames her mother for depriving her of a penis.

Lacan, however, argues that it is the imaginary father who is held to be the agent of privation.

However, these two accounts are not necessarily incompatible.

Girl and Mother

Even though the girl may at first resent the mother for depriving her of a penis and turn to the father in the hope that he will provide her with a symbolic substitute, she later turns her resentment against the father when he fails to provide her with the desired child.

Freud argues that penis envy persists into adulthood, manifesting itself both in the desire to enjoy the penis in sexual intercourse, and in the desire to have a child (since the father has failed to provide her with a child, the woman turns to another man instead).

Lacan argues that even when the woman has a child, this does not spell the end of her sense of privation.

Her desire for the phallus remains unsatisfied, no matter how many children she has.

The mother's basic dissatisfaction is perceived by the child from very early on; he realizes that she has a desire that aims at something beyond her dual relationship with him - the imaginary phallus.[4]

The child then seeks to fulfil her desire by identifying with the Imaginary phallus.

In this way, the privation of the mother is responsible for introducing the dialectic of desire in the child's life for the first time.

See Also

References