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The phrase "[[sexual difference]]", which has come into prominence in the debate between [[psychoanalysis]] and [[feminism]], is not part of [[Freud]]'s or [[Lacan]]'s theoretical vocabulary.
+
[[Image:Graph.of.Sexuation.jpg|thumb|right]]
 +
The phrase "[[sexual difference]]", which has come into prominence in the debate between [[psychoanalysis]] and [[feminism]], is not part of [[Freud]]'s or [[Lacan]]'s [[psychoanalytic theory|theoretical]] [[:Category:Terms|vocabulary]].
  
[[Freud]] speaks only of the anatomical ''distinction'' between the sexes and its psychical consequences.<ref>Freud. 1925d.</ref>
+
[[Freud]] speaks only of the [[biology|anatomical ''distinction'']] between the [[sexes]] and its [[psychical]] consequences.<ref>[[Freud|Freud, Sigmund]]. "The [[Dissolution]] of the Oedipus [[Complex]]." SE XIX, 183. 1925.</ref>
  
[[Lacan]] speaks of sexual ''position'' and the sexual ''relationship'', and occasionally of the ''differentiation'' of the sexes.<ref>{{S4}} p.154</ref>
+
[[Lacan]] speaks of [[sexual position|sexual ''position'']] and the [[sexual relationship|sexual ''relationship'']], and occasionally of the ''differentiation'' of the sexes.<ref>{{S4}} p.154</ref>
  
However, both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]] address the question of [[sexual difference]], and an entry has been included for this temr because it brings together an import set of related themes in [[Lacan]]'s work, and because it constitutes an important focus for feminist approaches to [[Lacan]]'s work.
+
However, both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]] address the question of [[sexual difference]], and an entry has been included for this term because it brings together an import set of related themes in [[Lacan]]'s [[work]], and because it constitutes an important focus for [[feminist]] approaches to [[Lacan]]'s [[Lacan|work]].
  
 
==Freud on Sexual Difference==
 
==Freud on Sexual Difference==
 +
One of the basic presuppositions underlying [[Freud]]'s work is that just as there are certain [[physical]] differences between [[men]] and [[women]], so also there are psychical differences.
  
One of the basic presuppositions underlying [[Freud]]'s work is that just as there are certain physical differences between men and women, so also there are psychical differences.
+
In other [[words]], there are certain psychical characteristics that can be called '[[masculine]]' and [[others]] that can be called '[[feminine]].'
  
In other words, there are certain psychical characteristics that can be called 'masculine' and others that can be called 'feminine.'
+
Rather than trying to give any [[formal]] definition of these [[terms]], [[Freud]] limits himself to describing how a [[human]] [[subject]] comes to acquire [[masculine]] or [[feminine]] psychical characteristics.
  
Rather than trying to give any formal definition of these terms, Freud limits himself to describing how a human subject comes to acquire masculine or feminine psychical characteristics.
+
This is not an [[instinct]]ual or [[nature|natural]] [[process]], but a complex one in which [[anatomical]] differences interact with [[social]] and psychical factors.
  
This is not an instinctual or natural process, but a complex one in which anatomical differences interact with social and psychical factors.
+
The [[whole]] process revolves around the [[castration complex]], in which the [[masculinity|boy]] fears [[being]] deprived of his [[penis]] and the [[femininity|girl]], assuming that she has already been deprived of hers, develops [[penis envy]].
 
 
The whole process revolves around the [[castration complex]], in which the boy fears being deprived of his penis and the girl, assuming that she has already been deprived of hers, develops [[penis envy]].
 
  
 
==Lacan on Sexual Difference==
 
==Lacan on Sexual Difference==
Following [[Freud]], [[Lacan]] also engages with the problem of how the human infant becomes a sexed subject.
+
Following [[Freud]], [[Lacan]] also engages with the problem of how the human [[infant]] becomes a [[sexed subject]].
  
For [[Lacan]], masculinity and [[femininity]] are not [[biological]] essences but symbolic positions, and the assumption of one of these two positions is fundamental to the construction of subjectivity; the [[subject]] is essentially a sexed subject.
+
For [[Lacan]], [[masculinity]] and [[femininity]] are not [[biological]] essences but [[symbolic position]]s, and the assumption of one of these two positions is fundamental to the [[construction]] of [[subjectivity]]; the [[subject]] is essentially a [[sexed subject]].
  
"Man" and "woman" are signifiers that stand for these two subjective positions.<ref>{{S20}} p.34</ref>
+
"[[Man]]" and "[[woman]]" are [[signifier]]s that stand for these two [[subjective position]]s.<ref>{{S20}} p.34</ref>
  
 
==Becoming a Sexed Subject==
 
==Becoming a Sexed Subject==
 +
For both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]], the [[child]] is at first ignorant of [[sexual difference]] and so cannot take up a [[sexual position]].
  
For both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]], the child is at first ignorant of [[sexual difference]] and so cannot take up a sexual position.
+
It is only when the child discovers [[sexual difference]] in the [[castration complex]] that he can begin to take up a [[sexual position]].
  
It is only when the child discovers [[sexual difference]] in the [[castration complex]] that he can begin to take up a sexual position.
+
Both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]] see this process of taking up a [[sexual]] position as closely connected with the [[Oedipus complex]], but they differ on the precise [[nature]] of the connection.
  
Both [[Freud]] and [[Lacan]] see this process of taking up a sexual position as closely connected with the [[Oedipus complex]], but they differ on the precise nature of the connection.
+
For [[Freud]], the [[subject]]'s [[sexual position]] is determined by the sex of the parent with whom the [[subject]] [[identifies]] in the [[Oedipus complex]] (if the [[subject]] [[identifies]] with the [[father]], he takes up a [[masculine]] [[position]]; [[identification]] with the [[mother]] entails the assumption of a [[feminine]] [[position]]).
  
For [[Freud]], the [[subject]]'s sexual position is determined by the sex of the parent with whom the subject identifies in the [[Oedipus complex]] (if the subject identifies with the father, he takes up a masculine position; identification with the mother entails the assumption of a feminine position).
+
For [[Lacan]], however, the [[Oedipus complex]] always involves a [[symbolic]] [[identification]] with the [[Father]], and hence [[Oedipus]] [[identification]] cannot determine [[sexual position]].
  
For [[Lacan]], however, the [[Oedipus complex]] always involves a symbolic identification with the [[Father]], and hence Oedipus identification cannot determine sexual position.
+
According to [[Lacan]], then, it is not [[identification]] but the [[subject]]'s [[relationship]] with the [[phallus]] which determines [[sexual position]].
 
 
According to [[Lacan]], then, it is not identification but the [[subject]]'s relationship with the [[phallus]] which determines sexual position.
 
  
 
==="Having" or "Not Having" the Phallus===
 
==="Having" or "Not Having" the Phallus===
 +
This relationship can either be one of "having" or "not having"; [[men]] have the [[symbolic]] [[phallus]], and [[women]] don't (or, to be more precise, [[men]] are "not without having it" [''ils ne sont pas sans l'avoir'']).
  
This relationship can either be one of "having" or "not having"; men have the symbolic phallus, and women don't (or, to be more precise, men are "not without having it" [''ils ne sont pas sans l'avoir'']).
+
The assumption of a sexual position is fundamental a symbolic act, and the [[difference]] between the sexes can only be conceived of on [[the symbolic]] plane.<ref>{{S4}} p.153</ref>
 
 
The assumption of a sexual position is fundamental a symbolic act, and the difference between the sexes can only be conceived of on the symbolic plane.<ref>{{S4}} p.153</ref>
 
  
<blockquote>It is insofar as the function of man and woman is symbolized, it is insofar as it's literally uprooted from the domain of the imaginary and situated in the domain of the symbolic, that any normal, completed sexual position is realized.<ref>{{S3}} p.177</ref></blockquote>
+
<blockquote>It is insofar as the function of man and woman is [[symbolized]], it is insofar as it's literally uprooted from the [[domain]] of the [[imaginary]] and situated in the domain of the symbolic, that any normal, completed sexual position is realized.<ref>{{S3}} p.177</ref></blockquote>
  
 
==="Am I a man or a woman?"===
 
==="Am I a man or a woman?"===
 +
However, there is no [[signifier]] of [[sexual difference]] as such which would permit the [[subject]] to fully [[symbolize]] the function of [[man]] and [[woman]], and hence it is [[impossible]] to attain a fully "normal, finished sexual position."
  
However, there is no [[signifier]] of [[sexual difference]] as such which would permit the [[subject]] to fully [[symbolize]] the function of [[man]] and [[woman]], and hence it is impossible to attain a fully "normal, finished sexual position."
+
The [[subject]]'s sexual [[identity]] is thus always a rather precarious matter, a source of perpetual [[self]]-questioning.
 
 
The [[subject]]'s sexual identity is thus always a rather precarious matter, a source of perpetual self-questioning.
 
  
 
The question of one's own sex ("Am I a man or a woman?") is a question which defines [[hysteria]].
 
The question of one's own sex ("Am I a man or a woman?") is a question which defines [[hysteria]].
  
The mysterious "other sex" is always the [[woman]], for both men and women, and therefore the question of the [[hysteric]] ("What is a woman?") is the same for both male and female hysterics.
+
The mysterious "other sex" is always the [[woman]], for both men and women, and therefore the question of the [[hysteric]] ("What is a woman?") is the same for both male and female [[hysterics]].
  
 
===No Signifier of Sexual Difference in the Symbolic Order===
 
===No Signifier of Sexual Difference in the Symbolic Order===
 +
Although the anatomy/[[biology]] of the [[subject]] plays a part in the question of which sexual position the [[subject]] will take up, it is a fundamental axiom in [[psychoanalytic]] [[theory]] that anatomy does not determine sexual position.
  
Although the anatomy/[[biology]] of the [[subject]] plays a part in the question of which sexual position the [[subject]] will take up, it is a fundamental axiom in psychoanalytic theory that anatomy does not determine sexual position.
+
There is a rupture between the [[biological]] aspect of [[sexual difference]] (for example at the level of the chromosomes) which is related to the [[reproductive]] function of sexuality, and the [[unconscious]], in which this reproductive function is not represented.
  
There is a rupture between the biological aspect of [[sexual difference]] (for example at the level of the chromosomes) which is related to the reproductive function of sexuality, and the [[unconscious]], in which this reproductive function is not represented.
+
Given the non-[[representation]] of the reproductive function of sexuality in the [[unconscious]], "in the pysche there is [[nothing]] by which the subject may situate himself as a male or female being."<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref>
  
Given the non-representation of the reproductive function of sexuality in the [[unconscious]], "in the pysche there is nothing by which the subject may situate himself as a male or female being."<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref>
+
There is no [[signifier]] of [[sexual difference]] in the [[symbolic order]].
 
 
There is no signifier of [[sexual difference]] in the [[symbolic order]].
 
  
 
The only sexual signifier is the [[phallus]], and there is no "female" equivalent of this signifier:
 
The only sexual signifier is the [[phallus]], and there is no "female" equivalent of this signifier:
  
<blockquote>"Strictly speaking there is no symbolization of woman's sex as such... the phallus is a symbol to which there is no correspondent, no equivalent.  It's a matter of a dissymetry in the signifier."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref>
+
<blockquote>"Strictly [[speaking]] there is no [[symbolization]] of woman's sex as such... the phallus is a symbol to which there is no correspondent, no equivalent.  It's a matter of a dissymetry in the signifier."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref></blockquote>
  
Hence the [[phallus]] is "the pivot which completes ''in both sexes'' the questioning of their sex by the castration complex."<ref>{{E}} p.198</ref>
+
Hence the [[phallus]] is "the pivot which completes ''in both sexes'' the questioning of their sex by the [[castration]] complex."<ref>{{E}} p.198</ref>
  
 
===Dyammetry between Men and Woman===
 
===Dyammetry between Men and Woman===
 +
It is this fundamental dissymmetry in the [[signifier]] which leads to the dissymmetry between the [[Oedipus complex]] in men and women.
  
It is this fundamental dissymetry in the [[signifer]] which leads to the dissymmetry between the [[Oedipus complex]] in men and women.
+
Whereas the [[male]] [[subject]] [[desire]]s the parent of the other sex and [[identifies]] with the parent of the same sex, the [[female]] [[subject]] [[desire]]s the parent of the same sex and "is required to take the [[image]] of the other sex as the basis of its identification."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref>
  
Whereas the male subject desires the parent of the other sex and identifies with the parent of the same sex, the female subject desires the parent of the same sex and "is required to take the image of the other sex as the basis of its identification."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref>
+
<blockquote>"For a woman the realization of her sex is not accomplished in the Oedipus complex in a way symmetrical to that of the man's, not by identification with the mother, but on the contrary by identification with the paternal [[object]], which assigns her an extra detour."<ref>{{S3}} p.172</ref></blockquote>
  
<blockquote>"For a woman the realization of her sex is not accomplished in the Oedipus complex in a way symmetrical to that of the man's, not by identification with the mother, but on the contrary by identifcation with the paternal object, which assgns her an extra detour."<ref>{{S3}} p.172</ref></blockquote>
+
<blockquote>"This signifying dissymmetry determines the paths down which the Oedipus complex will [[pass]].  The two paths make [[them]] both pass down the same trail - the trail of castration."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref></blockquote>
 
 
<blockquote>"This signifying dissymmetry determines the paths down which the Oedipus complex will pass.  The two paths make them both pass down the same trail - the trail of castration."<ref>{{S3}} p.176</ref></blockquote>
 
  
 
===Opposition Masculine-Feminine===
 
===Opposition Masculine-Feminine===
 +
If, then, there is no [[symbol]] for the opposition [[masculine]]-[[feminine]] as such, the only way to [[understand]] [[sexual difference]] is in terms of the opposition [[activity]]-[[passivity]].<ref>{{S11}} p.192</ref>
  
If, then, there is no symbol for the opposition masculine-feminine as such, the only way to understand [[sexual different]] is in terms of the opposition activity-passivity.<ref>{{S11}} p.192</ref>
+
This polarity is the only way in which the opposition [[male]]-[[female]] is represented in the [[psyche]], since the [[biological]] function of sexuality (reproduction) is not represented.<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref>
  
This polarity is the only way in which the opposition male-female is represented in the psyche, since the biological function of sexuality (reproduction) is not represented.<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref>
+
This is why the question of what one is to do as a [[man]] or a [[woman]] is a drama which is situated entirely in the field of the [[Other]],<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref> which is to say that the subject can only realize his [[sexuality]] on the [[symbolic]] level.<ref>{{S3}} p.170</ref>
 
 
This is why the question of what one is to do as a man or a woman is a drama which is situated entirely in the field of the Other,<ref>{{S11}} p.204</ref> which is to say that the subject can only realize his sexuality on the symbolic level.<ref>{{S3}} p.170</ref>
 
 
 
==Formulae of Sexuation==
 
 
 
[[Image:DIAGRAM.jpg|right|[[Sexual Difference|The diagram of sexual difference]]]]
 
 
 
In the [[seminars|seminar]] of [[chronology|1970-1]] [[Jacques Lacan]] tries to [[formalize]] his [[sexual difference|theory of sexual difference]] by means of [[mathemes|formulae]] derived from [[symbolic]] [[logic]]. 
 
 
 
The diagram is divided into two sides: on the left, [[formulae of sexuation|the male side]], and on the right, [[formulae of sexuation|the female side]].
 
 
 
The [[formulae of sexuation]] appear at the top of the diagram.
 
 
 
Thus the formulae on the male side are [[Image:form1.jpg]] (= there is at least one x which is not submitted to the phallic function) and [[Image:form3.jpg]] (= for all x, the phallic funciton is valid).
 
 
 
The last formula illustrates the relationship of [[woman]] to the logic of the not-all.
 
 
 
What is most striking is that the two propositions on each side of the diagram seem to contradict each other:
 
 
 
<blockquote>"Each side is defined by both an affirmation and a negation of the phallic funciton, an inclusion and exclusion of absolute (non-phallic) ''jouissance''."<ref>Copjec. 1994. p.24</ref></blockquote>
 
 
 
However, there is no symmetry between the two sides (no sexual relationship); eahc side represents a radically different way in which the [[sexual relationship]] can misfire.<ref>{{S20}} p.53-4</ref>
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
* [[Gender identity]]
+
{{See}}
 
* [[Oedipus complex]]  
 
* [[Oedipus complex]]  
 
* [[Phallus]]  
 
* [[Phallus]]  
* [[Sexuality]]  
+
||
 +
* [[Sexuality]]
 +
* [[Sexual Relationship]]
 +
{{Also}}
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 +
<div style="font-size:11px" class="references-small">
 
<references/>
 
<references/>
# Freud, Sigmund. (1908c). On the sexual theories of children. SE, 9: 205-226.
+
</div>
# ——. (1923e). The infantile genital organization (An interpolation into the theory of sexuality). SE, 19: 141-145.
+
# [[Freud|Freud, Sigmund]]. (1908c). On the sexual theories of [[children]]. SE, 9: 205-226.
# Lacan, Jacques. (1966). La signification du phallus (Die Bedeutung des Phallus).Écrits, 685-695. Paris: Le Seuil. (Original work published 1958)
+
# ——. (1923e). The [[infantile]] [[genital]] organization (An interpolation into the theory of sexuality). SE, 19: 141-145.
 +
# [[Lacan, Jacques]]. (1966). "''La [[signification]] du phallus (Die [[Bedeutung]] des Phallus)''." [[Écrits]]. 685-695. [[Paris]]: Le Seuil. (Original work published 1958)
  
[[Category:New]]
 
[[Category:Sexuality]]
 
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 
[[Category:Psychoanalysis]]
 
[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
 
[[Category:Jacques Lacan]]
 +
[[Category:Dictionary]]
 +
[[Category:Sexuality]]
 +
[[Category:New]]

Latest revision as of 19:03, 20 May 2019

Graph.of.Sexuation.jpg

The phrase "sexual difference", which has come into prominence in the debate between psychoanalysis and feminism, is not part of Freud's or Lacan's theoretical vocabulary.

Freud speaks only of the anatomical distinction between the sexes and its psychical consequences.[1]

Lacan speaks of sexual position and the sexual relationship, and occasionally of the differentiation of the sexes.[2]

However, both Freud and Lacan address the question of sexual difference, and an entry has been included for this term because it brings together an import set of related themes in Lacan's work, and because it constitutes an important focus for feminist approaches to Lacan's work.

Freud on Sexual Difference

One of the basic presuppositions underlying Freud's work is that just as there are certain physical differences between men and women, so also there are psychical differences.

In other words, there are certain psychical characteristics that can be called 'masculine' and others that can be called 'feminine.'

Rather than trying to give any formal definition of these terms, Freud limits himself to describing how a human subject comes to acquire masculine or feminine psychical characteristics.

This is not an instinctual or natural process, but a complex one in which anatomical differences interact with social and psychical factors.

The whole process revolves around the castration complex, in which the boy fears being deprived of his penis and the girl, assuming that she has already been deprived of hers, develops penis envy.

Lacan on Sexual Difference

Following Freud, Lacan also engages with the problem of how the human infant becomes a sexed subject.

For Lacan, masculinity and femininity are not biological essences but symbolic positions, and the assumption of one of these two positions is fundamental to the construction of subjectivity; the subject is essentially a sexed subject.

"Man" and "woman" are signifiers that stand for these two subjective positions.[3]

Becoming a Sexed Subject

For both Freud and Lacan, the child is at first ignorant of sexual difference and so cannot take up a sexual position.

It is only when the child discovers sexual difference in the castration complex that he can begin to take up a sexual position.

Both Freud and Lacan see this process of taking up a sexual position as closely connected with the Oedipus complex, but they differ on the precise nature of the connection.

For Freud, the subject's sexual position is determined by the sex of the parent with whom the subject identifies in the Oedipus complex (if the subject identifies with the father, he takes up a masculine position; identification with the mother entails the assumption of a feminine position).

For Lacan, however, the Oedipus complex always involves a symbolic identification with the Father, and hence Oedipus identification cannot determine sexual position.

According to Lacan, then, it is not identification but the subject's relationship with the phallus which determines sexual position.

"Having" or "Not Having" the Phallus

This relationship can either be one of "having" or "not having"; men have the symbolic phallus, and women don't (or, to be more precise, men are "not without having it" [ils ne sont pas sans l'avoir]).

The assumption of a sexual position is fundamental a symbolic act, and the difference between the sexes can only be conceived of on the symbolic plane.[4]

It is insofar as the function of man and woman is symbolized, it is insofar as it's literally uprooted from the domain of the imaginary and situated in the domain of the symbolic, that any normal, completed sexual position is realized.[5]

"Am I a man or a woman?"

However, there is no signifier of sexual difference as such which would permit the subject to fully symbolize the function of man and woman, and hence it is impossible to attain a fully "normal, finished sexual position."

The subject's sexual identity is thus always a rather precarious matter, a source of perpetual self-questioning.

The question of one's own sex ("Am I a man or a woman?") is a question which defines hysteria.

The mysterious "other sex" is always the woman, for both men and women, and therefore the question of the hysteric ("What is a woman?") is the same for both male and female hysterics.

No Signifier of Sexual Difference in the Symbolic Order

Although the anatomy/biology of the subject plays a part in the question of which sexual position the subject will take up, it is a fundamental axiom in psychoanalytic theory that anatomy does not determine sexual position.

There is a rupture between the biological aspect of sexual difference (for example at the level of the chromosomes) which is related to the reproductive function of sexuality, and the unconscious, in which this reproductive function is not represented.

Given the non-representation of the reproductive function of sexuality in the unconscious, "in the pysche there is nothing by which the subject may situate himself as a male or female being."[6]

There is no signifier of sexual difference in the symbolic order.

The only sexual signifier is the phallus, and there is no "female" equivalent of this signifier:

"Strictly speaking there is no symbolization of woman's sex as such... the phallus is a symbol to which there is no correspondent, no equivalent. It's a matter of a dissymetry in the signifier."[7]

Hence the phallus is "the pivot which completes in both sexes the questioning of their sex by the castration complex."[8]

Dyammetry between Men and Woman

It is this fundamental dissymmetry in the signifier which leads to the dissymmetry between the Oedipus complex in men and women.

Whereas the male subject desires the parent of the other sex and identifies with the parent of the same sex, the female subject desires the parent of the same sex and "is required to take the image of the other sex as the basis of its identification."[9]

"For a woman the realization of her sex is not accomplished in the Oedipus complex in a way symmetrical to that of the man's, not by identification with the mother, but on the contrary by identification with the paternal object, which assigns her an extra detour."[10]

"This signifying dissymmetry determines the paths down which the Oedipus complex will pass. The two paths make them both pass down the same trail - the trail of castration."[11]

Opposition Masculine-Feminine

If, then, there is no symbol for the opposition masculine-feminine as such, the only way to understand sexual difference is in terms of the opposition activity-passivity.[12]

This polarity is the only way in which the opposition male-female is represented in the psyche, since the biological function of sexuality (reproduction) is not represented.[13]

This is why the question of what one is to do as a man or a woman is a drama which is situated entirely in the field of the Other,[14] which is to say that the subject can only realize his sexuality on the symbolic level.[15]

See Also

References

  1. Freud, Sigmund. "The Dissolution of the Oedipus Complex." SE XIX, 183. 1925.
  2. Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre IV. La relation d'objet, 19566-57. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p.154
  3. Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre XX. Encore, 1972-73. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1975. p.34
  4. Lacan, Jacques. Le Séminaire. Livre IV. La relation d'objet, 19566-57. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Paris: Seuil, 1991. p.153
  5. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.177
  6. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p.204
  7. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.176
  8. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Tavistock Publications, 1977. p.198
  9. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.176
  10. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.172
  11. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.176
  12. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p.192
  13. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p.204
  14. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book XI. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, 1964. Trans. Alan Sheridan. London: Hogarth Press and Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1977. p.204
  15. Lacan, Jacques. The Seminar. Book III. The Psychoses, 1955-56. Trans. Russell Grigg. London: Routledge, 1993. p.170
  1. Freud, Sigmund. (1908c). On the sexual theories of children. SE, 9: 205-226.
  2. ——. (1923e). The infantile genital organization (An interpolation into the theory of sexuality). SE, 19: 141-145.
  3. Lacan, Jacques. (1966). "La signification du phallus (Die Bedeutung des Phallus)." Écrits. 685-695. Paris: Le Seuil. (Original work published 1958)